Cyber at the Crossroads


Cyber at the Crossroads

Cyber Center for Education & Innovation, Home of the National Cryptologic Museum

Fall Symposium

University of Maryland University College

College Park Marriott Hotel & Conference Center

Tuesday, October 10, 2017

8 a.m.–6:30 p.m.


8–9 a.m. | Lobby


9–9:30 a.m | Chesapeake Salons A & B

Symposium Welcome

Lt. Gen. Ken Minihan (U.S. Air Force, Ret.)

Symposium Chair

Chairman, CCEI-NCM Founders Group


President Javier Miyares

University of Maryland University College

Symposium Overview

Lt. Gen. John Campbell (U.S. Air Force, Ret.)

Senior Advisor, CCEI-NCM


9:30 a.m.–10:45 a.m. | Chesapeake Salons A & B

Exercise Eligible Receiver 97 (ER97) demonstrated that the US Government was ill-prepared to detect and defend against even a moderately sophisticated cyber attack.  ER97 alarmed key leaders in DOD and the Interagency and set in motion events that are still playing out, including new cyber policy and new organizational structures which were the predecessors of today’s US Cyber Command.  John Hamre, Deputy Secretary of Defense in 1997, famously said “Just like Sept. 11 changed our consciousness about the vulnerability of airplanes, Eligible Receiver changed our consciousness about our vulnerability to cyber warfare”.  This panel, made up of individuals directly involved with the 1997 exercise, will act as a scene-setter for the symposium and discuss how the exercise was conducted, what it revealed, what actions resulted, and how today’s cyber initiatives are still being influenced by ER97 lessons learned.   


Professor Jason Healey

Senior Research Scholar, Columbia University

Senior Fellow, Atlantic Council

Session Speakers

Lt. Gen. Ken Minihan (U.S. Air Force, Ret.)

Director, National Security Agency (1996-1999)

Lt. Gen. John Campbell (U.S. Air Force, Ret.)

Commander, Joint Task Force - Computer Network Defense (1998-2000)

CAPT Michael Sare (U.S. Navy, Ret.)


ER97 Red Team

Dr. Michael Warner

Command Historian, U.S. Cyber Command


10:45–11 a.m.


11 a.m.–12 p.m. | Chesapeake Salons A & B

Keynote Speaker

Dr. John Hamre

President and CEO

Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)

Deputy Secretary of Defense (1997–2000)

Dr. John Hamre was the deputy secretary of defense during ER97 and provided senior supervision of the exercise as well as the visionary DOD leadership needed to enact organizational and doctrinal changes to address its findings.  In his post-DOD career as chairman and CEO of CSIS, Dr. Hamre has been a leader in the evolution of our national cybersecurity strategy.  Dr Hamre will discuss his perspectives on the exercise, what it showed us, and what effects it has had on our current national cybersecurity enterprise.  With more than two decades of national cybersecurity leadership, Dr Hamre is uniquely qualified to comment on our past, present, and future.


12–1:15 p.m. | Potomac Salons 1 & 2

CCEI-NCM Overview

MG Rod Isler (U.S. Army, Ret.), Vice President, CCEI-NCM New Museum Campaign

Keynote Speaker

Dr. Thomas Rid

Professor of Strategic Studies, Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies

Author of Rise of the Machines


1:15–1:30 p.m.


1:30–2:45 p.m. | Chesapeake Salons A & B

Session Overview

In the wake of ER97 and other real-world cyber events over the past 20 years, the cyber threat has become broadly recognized, and the nature of the threat has continued to evolve. Today its scope and scale have expanded to touch nearly every aspect of our interconnected society.  Employed by hackers, criminals, terrorists, transnational and nation-state sponsored groups, the target set has expanded from basic communications services to include most every service and critical infrastructure that relies on information technology. In addition, cyber-enabled information operations are a powerful tool to influence public opinion and, as a consequence, public policy. However, while virtually every institution and equity in daily life has been influenced by some aspect of the expanded “cyber threat,” the responses of such organizations have been dissimilar and uneven. There is a continually growing need for development of expert practitioners to manage technology systems engaged in these processes, and to inoculate society broadly against the effects of systemic disinformation, media manipulation, and attack on fundamental institutions of society. Some say that we have already seen the “golden age of the Internet” when it was possible to conduct business and control industrial processes safely and reliably.  Are we now at an inflection point—or crossroads—in the evolution of our cyber ecosystem?  If so, what issues are important today to set conditions for success in the future? This broadly based panel will seek to examine the current state of readiness, response, and planning to address the range of cyber-related concerns and priorities across government, industry, and academia.


ADM William O. Studeman (U.S. Navy, Ret.)

Deputy Director of Central Intelligence (1992–1995)

Director, National Security Agency (1988–1992)


Hon. Steven Cambone

Associate Vice Chancellor for Cyber Initiatives, Texas A&M University System

Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence (2003–2007)

MG John Davis (U.S. Army, Ret.)

Vice President and Chief Security Officer, Palo Alto Networks

Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Cyber Policy (2014–2015)

Former Director, Current Operations, US Cyber Command (2013–2015)

Christopher C. Krebs, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary,

National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland Security

Assistant Secretary for the Office of Infrastructure Protection

Dr. David Mussington

Director of the Center for Public Policy and Private Enterprise

Professor of the Practice at the University of Maryland School of Public Policy

Senior Advisor for Cyber Policy, Office of the Secretary of Defense (2010-2011)


2:45–3 p.m.


3–4:15 p.m. | Chesapeake Salons A & B

Our cyber future seems to be on a course to be shaped by market forces and technological innovation with minimal direction from consistent and current policy oversight. Projections are that in just a few years, the Internet will connect much more than computers, phones, and laptops; in fact, nearly every sensor and control device which exists will be online. Cars, refrigerators, televisions, household appliances, cameras, aircraft, and even your wallet—along with sophisticated analytic engines and weapons systems—will all be connected online.  As ubiquitous as the Internet of Things (IoT) is today, in the future, billions more devices will communicate with each other in ways that will open up new levels of revenue and advertising streams. The IoT will also open up new opportunities for malevolent actors to use this world of interconnected devices to gain an even greater asymmetric advantage in a broad range of business, government, and military mission arenas.

  • Smart cities, where sensors and GPS tracking facilitate smoother flows of traffic.

  • Infrastructure sensors and control nodes that monitor equipment condition, send alerts when repairs are needed, and provide access for remote maintenance and control.

  • Smart appliances, working with smart electric grids, that run themselves or perform their chores after peak loads subside.

  • Self-driving cars—and potentially pilotless aircraft and drones—that dispatch themselves and navigate independently.

The IoT is here today and the Internet of Everything (IoE) is on the horizon. These are just a few examples that humans will have to adjust to.

"Nearly everything in daily life will have a connected application associated with it,” said Patrick Stack, manager for Accenture Interactive. “We can think of each person as a plug and each part of life as a socket.… Each step along the way will be able to recognize your common identifier and tailor your experience accordingly."

And it’s not just the humans; machines are also doing the same, communicating, self-organizing, and sharing information with each other and with us, over essentially the same complex and connected global mesh. And, they already outnumber us.

But is the future already determined?  Is ever greater networking of society inevitable?  Will the rising costs of a connected society—disruptions of increasing magnitude, the loss of control over the most intimate personal information, a growing skepticism about the security of systems and the information they convey—engender a reflective caution and deliberate limits across society on what is connected, where sensors are deployed, and what information is collected? These same questions have informed strategic discussions about weapons development, where certain weapons have been banned by treaty because, while possible, their development and deployment were judged to be destabilizing. Could a similar logic of limits inform our cyber future?


Mr. Marcus Sachs

Senior Vice President and Chief Security Officer

North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC)


Dr. Ivan Arreguín-Toft

Assistant Professor of International Relations, Frederick S. Pardee School of Global Studies, Boston University

Oxford Martin Fellow, The Global Cyber Security Capacity Centre at the Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford

Mr. Shawn Barry

Senior Technical Intelligence Officer

Directorate of Science and Technology, Central Intelligence Agency

MG Dave Bryan (U.S. Army, Ret.)

President & CEO, Bryan Business Management and Technology

Mr. Russell Gyurek

Director, IoT-CTO and Industries, Cisco


4:15–5:15 p.m. | Chesapeake Salons A & B


Lt. Gen. Ken Minihan (U.S. Air Force, Ret.)

Symposium Chair and Chairman, CCEI-NCM Founders Group

Keynote Address: Cybersecurity Executive Order and Key Administration Priorities

Mr. Rob Joyce

White House Cybersecurity Coordinator


5:15–5:30 p.m. | Chesapeake Salons A & B


5:30–6:30 p.m. | Potomac Salons 1 & 2

Join symposium speakers and organizers for a cocktail reception and the screening of a recently declassified ER97 after-action report video.