10th Australian Small Bridges Conference 2021
Our accepted abstracts are shown below:
 However abstracts may still be submitted. See HERE
Accepted Abstracts to date are:
Aida Bartels
Structures Lead AHJV - Associate Principal
Tina O’Connell
Hydraulics Lead AHJV - Principal Engineer
Floods are a fact of life in Far North Queensland. Safety and connectivity of the community during the floods is paramount, and so is the development of reliable yet cost-effective new infrastructure. This case study will discuss the design solutions introduced to replace a series of substandard crossings to effectively remove the flood vulnerability of the Bruce Highway across the Haughton River floodplain, south of Townsville. Arup & HDR Joint Venture (AHJV) delivered the design for the vital upgrade along 14km of the Bruce Highway with exceptional savings of taxpayer dollars, whilst reducing impact upon the environment, and meeting the flooding challenge in this complex floodplain.
AHJV reduced the number of bridges from the reference design down from sixteen to just seven, which reduced the original 3km of new bridges to 830 metres.
Innovative engineering included the first use of Tubular Steel Piles to meet the Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR) MRTS64, and first TMR project of this scale to utilise the prestressed precast driven piles designed and detailed for earthquake category BDEC2.
This TMR project is currently under construction by The Infrastructure Group (TIG), a JV between BMD, Bielby, JF Hull and Albem, with completion expected mid-2021.
The paper will cover an overview of the structural solutions on the project, the main focus being 7 bridge sites (4 floodway bridges, 2 overpasses, and Haughton River Bridge), unusual aspects of the pile designs, complimentary 2-D flood modelling for impact assessment at adjacent properties, abutment/pier scour design, and will touch on the use of full BIM and digital innovation to aid both TMR review and TIG construction.
Aida Bartels has over 20 years’ experience in delivering designs and concepts for road, cyclist, and pedestrian bridges. Aida has been a senior project leader on numerous infrastructure projects. She is passionate about shaping outcomes with a lens focused on collaboration and multi-disciplinary and stakeholder integrations, and on thinking outside the square.
Tina O’Connell is a 30 year experienced hydraulic engineer, with a high level of competency in hydrology, design of hydraulic structures and flood impact assessment. Tina’s core competency relates to transport corridors. She has extensive experience in linear infrastructure design development, focusing on Queensland roads and rail in the last ten years.
Ali Chaboki
Principal Engineer- Structures
Rail In Concrete (RIC) deck bridges are one of the most common types of railway bridges which have been used widely in around the world for short span bridges. For instance, about 30% of regional railway bridges in Victoria (now V/Line network) are RIC deck bridges and their average age is around 70 years.
In this type of deck, several side-by-side “used rails” are embedded in concrete as the main structural element of the deck. These bridges are not common anymore and battle deck superstructure with new steel profiles is more common for new bridges.
This type of superstructure has several advantages including:
  1. easy to construct especially in remote areas
  2. low maintenance cost and
  3. acceptable strength and durability
  4. environmental benefits like using “used material” and less carbon footprint.
However, due to embedment of rails in concrete, inspection and assessment of these decks is not that easy and corrosion and section loss of the embedded rails cannot be measured.
Given the number of these bridges and their average age, safety assessment and “As Is” load rating of these bridges is getting more important and is an ongoing challenge for railway operators.
In this paper, inspection methods and load rating of RIC bridge have been reviewed and several practical methods like NDT method for corrosion assessment, deflection test and strain assessment are explored to validate the load rating findings and to shed a light on the deterioration rate of these bridges.
Ali Chaboki is Principal Engineer - Structures based at Melbourne. For the past five years, he has been working with V/Line, Asset Management department to maintain and renew a broad range of railway infrastructures including bridges, platforms, culverts and tunnels. He holds Bachelors, Masters and PhD degrees in Structural Engineering and has more than 21 years’ experience in the infrastructure sector as the designer, design manager and senior engineer. When it comes to maintenance of bridges, load rating, assessment and inspection, repair and upgrade of a wide range of railway bridges are his main focus.
Amir Holakoo
Senior Structural Engineer
Kellogg Brown & Root
James Rajesh
Principal Engineer
Kellogg Brown & Root
As part of the Victorian Government's Western Roads Upgrade project, 8 main roads across the West of Melbourne were improved from access and safety perspective. At the intersection of Palmers and Sayers Roads a new pedestrian crossing was required to continue the Federation Trail across the intersection. The project involved the design, construction and commissioning of the new pedestrian footbridge.
One of the main guidelines of the urban design is that the pedestrian bridge is the entry statement to western precinct and an architectural feature and therefore the aesthetics of the bridge and the incorporation of landscaping areas and a flowing safety screen was important.
The large 80m center span of the 220m long bridge required the preferred truss design to be made open from top. This caused various challenges for the design and construction of the bridge. The approach spans of 35m each are of traditional super-T beam construction. The architectural cladding is extended to the approach spans to provide transition of cladding into the approach embankments. The main challenges and lessons learned will be covered in this presentation.
Amir Holakoo has over 12 years’ experience as a Structural Engineer, Amir’s experience covers structural design and analysis, design coordination and interface, documentation, project engineering and construction in transport infrastructure sector, residential and industrial buildings. James has over 20 years’ experience in structural design with specific and well developed skills in bridge engineering, with experience and involvement in several high profile projects. In addition to the design of road, rail bridges and structural infrastructure, James has been responsible for the analysis and design of buildings, industrial and mining structures.
James Rajesh has over 20 years’ experience in structural design with specific and well developed skills in bridge engineering, with experience and involvement in several high profile projects. In addition to the design of road, rail bridges and structural infrastructure, James has been responsible for the analysis and design of buildings, industrial and mining structures.
Anant Gupta
Principal Structural Engineer and Design Manager
Metro Trains Melbourne
This paper focuses on the considerations made, and the innovative solutions adopted, to facilitate access to enable maintenance on a 3.1km long rail viaduct constructed along the brownfield corridor. The viaduct construction removed 4 level crossings along the Caulfield to Dandenong Rail Line in Melbourne.
The construction of rail viaduct includes a pair of 2600mm deep box girder viaducts supporting the up and down tracks supported on a direct fix track. The viaduct is typically designed as a multi span simple supported bridge with a maximum span of 40m. A pair of elastomeric bearings was utilized to support each end of the box girder resulting in an arrangement of a total 4 elastomeric bearings at typical pier location.
A main focus during the design was to incorporate a maintenance access strategy for the viaduct and in demonstrating that safe access for maintenance personnel is provided.
The following items will be covered:
  • Rail assets on viaducts – Description of rail assets on the viaduct and access considerations to enable safe maintenance with minimal disruption to train services.
  • Maintenance access within the box girder including access hatches spacing, safe provision into the box girder via access hatches and between adjacent spans.
  • Access to other structural elements (steel crossheads, bearings etc.).
Anant Gupta, BE (Civil), MEng Sc. (Structures), MIEAust, CPEng is a Principal Structural Engineer and Design Manager with Metro Trains Melbourne. Anant has over 15 year’s experience in structural design, construction and maintenance of bridges within road / rail infrastructure projects in Australia. He has worked on a variety of roles – including technical leadership, design management, project management within multi-disciplinary teams on major rail projects throughout the project lifecycle over the past 10 years.
Andrew Backhouse
Lead Technical Manager
Outokumpu Stainless UNITED KINGDOM
Claes Tigerstrand
Senior Technical Manager
Outokumpu Stainless, SWEDEN
Stainless steels have long been materials used in the built environment, most notably as building cladding for skyscrapers. Over the last 30 years a range of high strength duplex stainless steels have been developed which are suited to bridge construction, particularly in coastal towns and cities where bridges located in aggressive salty atmospheres can benefit from use of a durable material. Use of stainless steel as the main structural material brings both opportunities and challenges. The opportunity is to build very long life bridges requiring little maintenance. This can have benefits in life cycle costing, and in the case of signature footbridges in maintaining a high quality appearance over a long period.
However, to maintain a viable construction cost, bridge designers need to optimize the selection of the specific grade of stainless steel used. This often means using higher strength duplex grades to minimize the weight of steel and then optimising the design to utilize the high strength material. The grade used also determines the corrosion resistance and selecting the optimum grade to give the required durability means bridge designers should take the specific environmental conditions into account.
The method used for stainless steel material selection in the Eurocode EN1993-1-4 will be discussed, including how these principles could be adapted to Australian bridge projects. Fabricators also need to be aware of fabrication procedures which can differ in some key respects from carbon steel structures, particularly with high strength duplex stainless steel.
The paper will discuss the benefits of using stainless steel and consider ways in which the challenges of designing and working with this material may be overcome. Illustrative examples of small and medium sized stainless steel pedestrian, road and rail bridges will be drawn from across the world where life cycle costing, or appearance, has been the key driver in the use of stainless steel.
Andrew Backhouse is a UK Chartered Engineer and Fellow of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. He has 30 years’ experience of stainless steel production and technical application development with Outokumpu and predecessors Avesta Sheffield and British Steel.
Claes Tigerstrand who is based in Avesta, SWEDEN, has an M.Sc. degree in mechanical engineering and 20+ years of experience in stainless steels – particularly duplex and high strength stainless steels – and has worked in several different managerial positions in R&D as well as in sales and marketing for Outokumpu. He has been for many years active in the work of developing design codes to optimize utilization of stainless steel, such as Eurocode 3, where he was a member of the technical committee for design of steel structures part 1-4, the supplementary rules for stainless steels.
Andrew La Spina
Timber Structures Engineer
Wood Research and Development
The term ‘Doolan Deck’, identifies the configuration of a pre-panelised deck unit that comprises of hardwood log girders and an overlay concrete deck system. This proprietary modulus bridge system was purchased by the former Richmond River Shire Council in 1995 and they have since pre-fabricated over 200 Doolan Bridges. 
They were often used as ‘temporary’ bridges due to their light weight and low cost  and also became popular for long term bridge solutions on low volume regional roads. They are now becoming an aging asset for regional councils with the replacement costs of a new structure having a high price tag.
This presentation will investigate which techniques can be utilised to effectively and economically increase the service life of these structures. This approach incorporates a proactive maintenance philosophy rather than a costly reactive approach which is commonly seen for ageing timber bridges. With many of these bridges on low volume roads, the cost benefit of the asset for the owner is quite low and thus resulting in a low allocation of funds for renewal or maintenance.
Inspection results from a recent inspection package of 17 Doolan Bridges will be used to highlight the problems starting to arise for these structures as well as three bridges which have also undergone proactive maintenance techniques.
Andrew La Spina BE (Civil) began work with WRD as a Timber Structures Engineer in 2016. His roles within the engineering division are; to conduct and oversee certified Level II and III inspections of timber structures, compute preliminary design and analysis reports of timber bridges and drawing reviews of construction plans for timber bridges projects throughout Australia. On this project Andrew was heavily involved with the whole inspection and reporting process which has also extended to further research about Doolan Deck Systems.
Antony Andradi
Senior Engineer Pavement and Structures
Logan City Council
Logan is surrounded by Brisbane, Gold Coast, Ipswich, Redland and Scenic Rim Regional (SRRC) Councils. The total land area is 957 km2 and the eight largest Local Government by population in Australia.
The Red Bridge was constructed in 1930. The bridge is currently used by pedestrian and cyclists to cross the Logan River.
The rehabilitation of the Logan River Red Bridge (from Beenleigh to Loganholme) involved:
  • Concrete and steel bridge repair works
  • Repainting the bridge in red
These works, scheduled to be completed in September 2019, are to strengthen the bridge structure and enhance its visual appeal and will continue to catch the eyes of visitors to Logan City. This upgrade will ensure the vitality of this historical land mark.
Selecting a red paint with sufficient colour fastness, and corrosion protection, that was also acceptable to elected members was challenging.
As part of project scoping a BIM model of the structure was requested from the Consulting Engineers. Gaining a BIM model for an existing infrastructure is an ongoing challenge for local government, and obtaining the BIM Model will assist in future management of the structure.
Antony Andradi is a Chartered Professional Civil Engineer and Registered Professional Engineer of Queensland with more than 24 years experience in Transport Asset Management in Sri Lanka, New Zealand and Australia covering Transport Planning, Transport Asset Management including Asset Systems (RAMM, SMEC), Pavement Modelling (dTIMS - Deighton's Total Infrastructure Asset Management Software), Asset Valuation, Contract Administration and Pavement Management. He has been heavily involved with Logan’s timber bridge replacement projects along with a $25 million Annual Pavement Rehabilitation since he started with Logan City Council in 2011.
Ben Chung
Senior Technical Director – Structures
Vahid Manoochehrikian
Senior Structural Engineer - Bridges
Luke Weatherstone
Structural Engineer
The revised AS5100 Bridge Design suite, introduced in 2017, presented a number of significant changes from the 2004 suite. Notable among these were considerations of fatigue, specifically with AS 5100.6-2017.
GHD has undertaken fatigue analyses, including determination of remaining life, on a number of bridges with elements / connections that are susceptible to fatigue damage. Our fatigue assessment of a rail bridge comprising welded through steel plate girders with cross girders and composite stringers to AS 5100 has indicated a number of issues including the following:
  1. Determining the number of stress cycles in accordance with AS 5100.2-2017 can lead to an underestimation of the actual stress cycles;
  2. Remaining life estimation using the peak stress approach can lead to conservative result when compared to that from damage summation;
  3. Inconsistency and lack of clarity in the S-N curves of AS5100.6-2017 for number of cycles to failure in excess of 107. We have, in particular, identified some deficiencies in the proposed formulas for calculating the endurance for a given stress range; and
  4. Clarity in the application of the capacity reduction factor as the outcome will be different when applied to the S-N curves or damage summation using the rainflow cycle counting method.
The paper will address the above and provide suggested amendments. It will also present a suggested workflow and model for steel rail bridges.
Ben Chung has over 30 years’ experience in civil and structural engineering, including design, maintenance, construction, asset management and standards development, in both private and public (NSW rail) sectors. He has published a number of papers on fatigue of steel structures, including one at the 2011 Austroads Bridges Conference, which was nominated for an award. He is currently Senior Technical Director (Structures and Materials) and Subject Matter Expert (Structures) on major transportation projects.
Vahid Manoochehrikian has more than 14 years’ experience in the transport infrastructure sector, primarily in bridge structures. He has extensive experience in analysis, design and documentation of short to long span highway and railway bridges. Vahid has been involved in concept and detailed designs, verifications, load ratings, refurbishment and strengthening works of a significant number of bridges. Vahid is currently the structures lead on the Echuca Moama Bridge Project.
Luke Weatherstone is a Structural Engineer in GHD’s Sydney office. He holds two Bachelors degrees (Civil Engineering and Physics). Luke’s current focus is on design (both concept and detailed), assessment and strengthening for different bridge types.
Chris Dowding
Director / Senior Structural Engineer
Tod Consulting
In the 1950s, micropiles were invented to underpin historic structures. As time went on, micropiles have been adapted to suit a variety of specialist works, including structural retrofitting in low headroom locations, retrofitting of building structures, and stabilisation of steep earth batters.
In the last decade, micropiles have begun to make their way into Australian bridges and other infrastructure.
At first appearance, the slender cross-section of micropiles might seem inferior to large diameter bored concrete piles:
  • Bored piles have very good resistance to corrosion, and can carry 2,000 to 70,000kN loads. Bored piles are also very tolerant to scour. When a river-bed drops by several metres during a flood event, bored piles can be designed to handle the resulting loss of horizontal support, increased pile slenderness, increased pile bending moments, and reduced skin friction.
  • Micropiles have fair resistance to corrosion, can carry 300 – 2000kN loads, and can be cased to have a limited tolerance to scour. It should be noted that casings are usually steel, and corrosion resistance is limited to some form of coating.
This paper looks at some real-world projects where micropiles had a clear advantage over normal foundation solutions, and outlines the lessons learnt by the design engineers.
Chris Dowding designs, maintains and modifies Bridges, Infrastructure and Placemaking Structures. He also works with Local Government asset managers, who have the challenge of managing ageing infrastructure & facilities. He gives them clear action plans to minimise whole-of-life costs and keep the community safe.
Dr Dan Tingley - 1
Senior Engineer and Wood Technologist
Wood Research and Development, CANADA
Nova Scotia Department of Transportation and Infrastructure Renewal (NSTIR) in 2018 tendered the replacement of the subject bridge, locally known as the “Rainbow Bridge”. Timber Restoration Services (TRS) was awarded the work and the contract were signed in July 2019.
The former bridge was a steel arch and it created a hump over the river to achieve the local flood level clearance. TRS submitted a 3 pinned arch design to maintain the flood level clearance, match the road approach levels with ease and to approximately replicate the Rainbow Bridge being replaced.
From the detailed design commencing in August through manufacturing, pre-assembly, treatment, shipping, pre-fabrication and installation, Dr Dan Tingley in this presentation, explores the intricacy of 3 lane design for a rural highway, the method of achieving the required 40m long central span and the project benefits wood brings to the ‘rapid bridge replacement’ concept. The design called for the manufacturing of over 52,000 holes in bridge elements and over 152,000 pieces to construct the bridge. The bridge was completely machined and assembled prior to treatment and transport to site on 23 semi-trailers. It replaced a steel structure which rusted out in 48 years. The site is in the highest embedded and exposed corrosion zone in Canada and wood was a natural choice with respect to longevity. The former bridges substructure comprising piles being 78 years old was assessed and restored to support the new bridge plus construction loadings.
TRS delivered this new bridge installation from the elevated road formations using both the northern (more frequently) and southern approach pavements. Sequential planning for the delivery of bridge elements to site and setting a 500 tonnes mobile crane on the new bridge jump span at the north approach eliminated the need for a crane platform and reduced craning cost. The reduction in reach to lift the assembled arches across the river to their final resting place, allowed the downsizing of the crane from a crawler to a mobile. Despite the constrained worksite and the logistics involved, the new bridge was opened to traffic four and a half months after the design commenced.
This project demonstrates why timber/wood is still a suitable building material for bridges.
Dr. Dan Tingley graduated from University of New Brunswick with a B. Sc. F. E. and later a M.Sc.C.E. . Following this in the 90’s Tingley finished his Ph.D. in wood technology and structural engineering at Oregon State University. He has worked in the wood products field for over 40 years. He currently serves as the Senior Engineer for Wood Research and Development and Advanced Research and Development and makes his base in Portland, Oregon. Tingley holds over 40 patents worldwide and has over 125 referred and non-referred publications. He specializes in timber structures design and restoration with a significant interest in timber bridges. He is currently acting as senior engineer providing oversight on 20 timber bridge restoration projects worldwide.
Dr Dan Tingley - 2
Senior Engineer and Wood Technologist
Wood Research and Development, CANADA
Byron Shire Council sought to find a way to improve the capacity and performance of the South Arm Bridge over Simpsons Creek. The bridge links the Brunswick Heads township with main swimming beach and the town’s Surf Life Saving club. The bridge is in a tidal zone and forms a vital link for tourists to access the beach which consequently drives the tourism industry in Brunswick Heads.
Wood Research and Development was commissioned, in January 2019 to complete a level 3 bridge Inspection and load assessment on the current condition of South Arm Bridge. The overall condition of elements tested in South Arm Bridge is poor, with an overall Condition State Rating of 4. Analysis of the structure in this condition determined that the bridge load capacity rating should be reduced to 10T immediately.
The tested girders, corbels, headstocks and piles have high SWT readings in many locations. However, the deck is in fair condition, but is showing signs of wear and has approximately 50% life remaining.
Of the three options presented for restoration of the bridge back to T44 capacity, the client (Byron Shire Council) chose the kind-for-kind replacement of the defective girders, corbels, headstocks and piles that have restricted the load rating and condition state rating of the structure. This option will restore the bridge to Condition State Rating 2. This option involves temporarily removing the deck planks and replace the deteriorated girders with appropriately sized log girders from Council’s current reclaimed timber stockpiles inventory. The option also includes replacing decayed corbels and headstocks while restoring the piles by removing the concrete wrapping and/or sleeves and posting a new timber pile section.
Dan Tingley will refer to the above project to elaborate on the design parameters applicable in the tidal zone pile restoration of the currently concrete sleeved piles Another feature of this project is incorporating reclaimed timber from 5 ‘decommissioned’ timber bridges that were inspected and certified by WRD using EPHOD®. This allows WRD to certify the reclaimed elements to the load ratings required by design and significantly reduced the additional material requirement of the works. The replacement of vertical connectors with horizontal side connections is key to the successful upgrade of this bridge and to achieve the design life from the restoration that the client desires. WRD through this design expects the life of the bridge to be doubled by this feature alone. Dan will also discuss that the council requires the bridge to remain open to single lane traffic with minimum closures during the upgrades works and in accordance with the current load rating of the structure.  
Dr. Dan Tingley graduated from University of New Brunswick with a B. Sc. F. E. and later a M.Sc.C.E. . Following this in the 90’s Tingley finished his Ph.D. in wood technology and structural engineering at Oregon State University. He has worked in the wood products field for over 40 years. He currently serves as the Senior Engineer for Wood Research and Development and Advanced Research and Development and makes his base in Portland, Oregon. Tingley holds over 40 patents worldwide and has over 125 referred and non-referred publications. He specializes in timber structures design and restoration with a significant interest in timber bridges. He is currently acting as senior engineer providing oversight on 20 timber bridge restoration projects worldwide.
Daniel Dalton
Technical Manager
Duratec Australia
Sam Mathankar
Asset Manager Structures
Main Roads Western Australia
Arash Groban
Principal Bridge Engineer
Dr Liam Holloway
Managing Director
MEnD Consulting
Bridge 0953, commonly known as ‘The Narrows Bridge’, spans across the Swan River and serves as the main arterial road conveying north/south bound traffic through, and past Perth’s CBD.
Construction of the bridge commenced in 1957 and was completed some two years later. At this time, the bridge was thought to be the largest pre-stressed bridge of its kind in the world, and in 1999 was recognised in the state heritage register for its engineering innovation and historic contribution to Perth’s development.
Approaching sixty years of service, inspection works were performed to address various durability concerns relating to some of the safety and architectural features of the bridge. The chosen methodologies were selected based on their ability to overcome various situational constraints inherent with the bridge. Most notably, this involved a conceptual application of Phased Array Ultrasonics to evaluate corrosion of the embedded guard rail posts, mitigating requirements for extensive breakouts.
An alternate lightweight Fibre Reinforced Plastic fascia panel was also designed and prototyped as a replacement to the existing 250kg concrete panels.
Daniel  Dalton has seven years of post-graduate experience as an engineer, working in the mining, marine, commercial and infrastructure sectors. Daniel has a Masters in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Salford, UK. His industry experience in Australia has focused on the condition assessment and remediation of reinforced concrete and steel structures.
Sam Mathankar has 22 years’ experience in roads and civil infrastructure Industry which includes asset management, design management, design co-ordination, construction, contract and project management. He has worked for the various Government Transport Authorities, Local Government, international contractors and engineering consultants. Sam has worked and managed teams in projects that planned, designed, built and maintained transport infrastructure in Australia and overseas and has experience in leading multidisciplinary teams from feasibility to construction stages for various new built, re-alignments and widening /upgrade projects.
Liam Holloway’s unique skills and expertise as a materials engineer specialising in durability and corrosion, traverse key infrastructure sectors including marine, mining, defence and energy. Liam completed his PhD in the field of corrosion inhibition and monitoring for reinforced concrete structures at Monash University. Following this he has worked in both the consulting and contracting fields with a focus on asset condition assessment, remediation and maintenance.
Daniel Stephenson
Lead Structural Engineer
Rockfield Technologies Australia
Eyal Azulay
Senior Civil Engineer
Queensland Rail 
Utilization of aging infrastructure, particularly aging bridges, is a worldwide problem. Load rating of aging bridges is critical for asset owners to assess the operational risks.
Assessing bridges using traditional engineering methods can sometimes be overly conservative and not cost effective for the asset owners. Finite Element Modelling and Analysis (FEA) has been widely used on bridges, particularly on bridge steel structures, in recent years, and offers potential capacity improvements compared to traditional methods.
However, the consideration of structure imperfections and residual stress is always a challenge in FE modelling for steel structures. For the first time, the criteria for FE methods has been detailed in AS5100.6 and provides good guidance for bridge engineers to assess steel structures using FE Modelling. Over the past two years, Rockfield have assessed many steel trusses bridges for QR using FE modelling to analyse and determine the truss load capacities to AS5100.6:2017.
The paper provides a detailed insight into FE modelling on steel truss capacity assessment using one of the QR bridges as an example. The modelling and analysis has been conducted using the ANSYS software package. Truss members’ as-is conditions, non-linear material stress-strain, eigenvalue buckling and pre-deformed/displaced geometries form the basis of the analysis process. The paper also presents issues and challenges experienced by the asset owner in managing ageing steel truss bridges, and how the advanced modelling/analysis techniques assists with economical, efficient and targeted inspections and repairs.
The asset owner also identifies that existing/historic bridges will not always comply with the latest Standards and trying to achieve full compliance may not be feasible. Assessment may be more a risk-based approach by imposing allowable live loads, reduced live load factors and re-assessment of combinations, in particular horizontal forces that occur simultaneously (e.g. by monitoring wind conditions). Active monitoring of bridge utilisation via sensors such as strain gauges may also form part of the risk-based decision making and load rating.
Daniel Stephenson is an RPEQ qualified Structural Engineer. He has over 11 years of experience of design and review of industrial, mining and public infrastructure including road/rail bridges, bulk material handling fixed plant and rail mounted machines. Daniel specialises in design and installation of structural sensor systems for bridges and machines. He is the lead structural engineer at Rockfield Technologies.
Eyal Azulay is a Civil Engineer, RPEQ qualified in the Civil & Structural areas. Eyal’s current role is a Senior Civil Engineer with Queensland Rail Townsville since 2016. Eyal has over 14 years’ experience as a Structural & Civil Engineer in the infrastructure and mining sectors, working for consultancies in Australia and overseas.
David De Saedeleer
Dane Hansen
LB Australia 
Ryan Findlayson
LB Australia
A challenge often encountered when upgrading an existing bridge is complying with more stringent requirements of today’s bridge standards. In particular this can be an issue with upgrading of the parapets. Meeting the new standards is often extremely expensive and may require the bridge to be out of service for a significant time.
Parapet replacement issues include:
  • Structural reinforcement to a complete replacement of the bridge is required to support the higher loads of a conforming parapet.
  • Damage to the waterproofing and or structural components caused by drilling to fix the new parapet.
  • Down time for critical infrastructure
  • Inconvenience to Public
 This presentation explores the development for use in Australia of an innovative parapet which utilises a floating beam to overcome the above issues, and will also discus recent experience in Europe.
David De Saedeleer is an engineer, CEO of Desami (founded in 2012), with over 15 years’ experience in the road safety devices. He is a member of the standardization committee for EN 1317 and of Consultative Council COPRO which defines the rules of aggregation of road restraint systems in Belgium. 
David Han
Bridge Structures Manager
Rockfield Technologies Australia
Bill Weston
Senior Project Engineer
Queensland Rail
The revision to AS5100 in 2017 resulted in significant changes to the braking and traction forces for railway bridges.
These changes including the magnitude of the braking and traction forces, the distribution method and the consideration of rail-structure interaction, have increased the assessment effort for bridge engineers to undertake the design of new railway bridges and the assessment of existing railway bridges.
The paper will explore practical methods to assess the braking and traction forces, thermal loads and their distribution for both open deck and ballasted deck railway bridges.
This paper will also cover the impact of rail-structure interaction consideration and the management of rail on bridges/bridge approaches on railway bridges design.
David Han is a RPEQ qualified structural engineer and is the Bridge Structures Manager at Rockfield. He has more than 25 years of work experience in structural design primarily in Bridge structures in Australia, Canada and China. He has been involved in the design, verification and assessment of hundreds of bridges including a cable-stayed bridge with 168m single tower and 310m main span. He has extensive design experience in RC, PSC, Steel structures for bridges, mining infrastructure, water and wastewater treatment plants, buildings and marine structures. He has been leading the structural team at Rockfield that is currently working on the assessment of 25+ complex bridges around Australia.
Bill Weston is a RPEQ qualified Mechanical Engineer. His current role, since 2016, is a Senior Project Engineer with Queensland Rail, Townsville. Bill has over 15 years’ experience as a Mechanical Engineer in the food, mining and infrastructure sectors.
Davide Maggiolo
Technical Coordinator
Timber Restoration Systems
Councils and communities are searching for novel ways to draw the tourist dollar to their region with many have taken to transforming their old neglected infrastructure into tourist attractions. For many regions, old railway line corridors offer the opportunity for Councils to expand into the outdoor exploration tourist industry where hiking, camping and low impact vehicles can be enjoyed. The term “rail trail” has become a buzzword of late with Councils looking for funding to attract active tourists to their region. The interest in restoring these grand structures of our past is growing with communities preferring preservation over. This requires increasing the lifespan of the structures.
Timber Restoration Systems (TRS) has now supplied bridge refurbishment and replacements on three of rail trail development projects with the most recent being the Tumbarumba to Rosewood Rail Trail, the first in NSW. TRS were contracted, by the Snowy Valleys Regional Council, to design and construct refurbishments and renewals to four(4) old timber bridges on the 22km Rail Trail.
A Level 3 Bridge Inspection Assessment was obtained from Wood Research and Development using non-destructive testing methods, and from this it was identified that the bridges inspected could be refurbished and/or renewed cost effectively thereby forming the scope of the project for funding applications and tendering.
TRS was awarded the work with a proposal to restore, as far as practical, the existing rail bridges using a combination of refurbishment and renewal as required to satisfy pedestrian loadings of 5kPa and light maintenance vehicle traffic of 5 tonne in compliance with AS5100.
This presentation will highlight design and construction methodologies used to manage the onerous task of selective demolition, recycling and rebuilding these bridges. With raging bushfires to contend with, the presentation will cover the acceleration of the program to meet the Council’s opening date along with flooding, longevity and architectural considerations needed to be made to fit within the boundaries of the existing structural shape of the bridges. By eliminating old log bridge building practices that accelerated decay such as through-bolting and spiking through to incorporating a developed horizontal connection strategy throughout, TRS has provided a design service life of such structures that is effectively doubled with minimal maintenance.
As State Governments roll out new rail trails, opportunities are presented to showcase these wonderfully architectural railway bridges which have remained hidden in the Australian countryside since we became independently mobile in our cars. Many of these grand bridges are no longer being used by both traffic or railway and as such have suffered neglect over decades.
With timber bridge design and construction acumen, TRS transformed these dilapidated neglected beasts of burden into svelte structures that grace the rural landscape and providing highlighted attractions for the tourist hikers.
Davide Maggiolo has over 30 years specialising in technical timber advice and engineered wood products and has established his credentials as a timber expert. He has a Level 2 certificate in Advanced Timber Structures Maintenance, Restoration and Inspection Practices. With many years of experience working in project management and contract administration for multiple builders on different projects, Davide’s role is to be the technical expert timber support to the engineers and construction advice to the field crews on projects as well as a project manager.
Dion Christian
Diagnostic / Remedial Engineer
The Kuranda Rail Line is a major tourist attraction where a high value is placed on history and the pristine environment. This route however presents a number of technical challenges through the need to maintain critical bridge stock without disturbing the environment or daily functionality of this economically valuable rail route.
The rail line which is set in a harsh environment and steep, forested terrain has a number of historic bridges in difficult to reach locations. One such steel truss bridge required replacement of a number of cross-girders which had suffered extensive corrosive section loss which had reduced their load-carrying capacity. This paper focuses on how by combining rope access, technical rigging and customised componentry we were able to remove and replace a series of deteriorated cross-girders on a remote area railway bridge on the Kuranda Rail Line in Cairns FNQ.
Dion Christian is a diagnostic and remedial engineer from Absafe’s engineering team. Before commencing work in the remedial industry, Dion previously worked as a structural engineer in the design of steel, reinforced and post-tensioned concrete structures. Since 2015 Dion has utilized industrial rope access techniques to inspect, diagnose and oversee the remediation of a wide range of structures – ranging from high-rise building facades to bridges, cooling towers and dams. Dion was the lead engineer for the project presented in this case study, and was responsible for the structural design and detailing of our custom lifting gantry, in-house testing and on-site supervision of works.
Dr Dominique Cavell
Technical Director
Mahes Rajakaruna
Structures Design and Standards Engineer
Main Roads Western Australia
Bridge No 1223 is a 46 year old prestressed concrete bridge located on the Melville Mandurah Highway over the northbound Kwinana railway marshalling yard. The three span superstructure comprise 8 No. precast post-tensioned beams with half-joints in the central span. The side spans are 17.1m, with the central span being approximately 17m between the half joints.
The bridge had previously been strengthened at the half joints with external steel plates and high-strength steel tie rods. Due to residual concerns over the capacity of the bridge and how the half joints were performing, the bridge had been retrofitted with a structural health monitoring system comprising strain gauges, accelerometers and various sensors.
In order to assess the behaviour and structural response of the bridge under various traffic loading, an analytical 3D model was developed and calibrated against the results from field data. This was undertaken in collaboration with research partners at Curtin University as part of the SBENRC research project.
Dr Dominique Cavell is Aurecon’s Bridges Leader in Perth, with over 25 years’ experience in transport infrastructure projects encompassing the design, inspection, assessment and strengthening of bridges. Dominique has a PhD in the Assessment of the residual strength of deteriorating post-tensioned concrete bridges and, having worked closely with bridge asset owners in the UK and with Main Roads WA, she is passionate about developing methods to prolong the service life of existing bridges.
Mahes Rajakaruna has been with Main Roads Western Australia since 2002. In his current position, he manages the review, development and maintenance of all standards and processes relating to bridge design, construction and maintenance. Prior to moving to Perth, he was a lecturer in Civil Engineering at the University of South Australia for over 12 years.
Donald Richardson
Managing Director
Tiaki Engineering Consultants NEW ZEALAND
Jeandré le Roux
Bridge Design Engineer
Tiaki Engineering Consultants NEW ZEALAND
In September 2018, Tiaki Engineering Consultants Ltd. was engaged to design a 96m bridge crossing the Waipaoa River in Te Karaka, Gisborne, allowing for safe access to the Kiwi fruit orchards owned by Thompsons Horticulture Ltd. The project was anticipated to be complete by the end of 2019.
This project has utilised various technical fields and will allow for a wide range of discussions during presentation. Discussion points identified are:
  1. Flood Modelling:   Numerous flood scenarios were considered assessing the existing river flow as well as the impact of the proposed structure on the river bed. Various soffit heights were considered, including a low-level structure (original concept).
  2. Geotechnical Investigation:  Assessment of investigation methodology suitable given the intended purpose, size, location and structural arrangement of the bridge. Three machined boreholes up to 21m depth with SPT’s conducted at regular intervals.
  3. Structural Modelling and Design: The structure was modelled with state of the art StaadPro Connect Edition (Bentley) while loads were derived in accordance with the NZTA Bridge Manual and AS5100.2. Hydraulic loads, debris accumulation and seismic events were all considered.
Donald Richardson has over the past 22 years in New Zealand, been involved with design, technical supervision and management of projects, people and consulting engineering offices in Tauranga. Donald’s historic background is in Bridges, road structures, drainage, industrial structural design, wastewater treatment and pipeline infrastructure and heavy foundation works.
Jeandre le Roux is responsible for the conceptualisation, design, construction monitoring and planning of medium sized road, farm and pedestrian bridges. He also takes responsibility for the design, design verification and reviews of industrial plants in and around the Bay of Plenty region.
Elijah Holland
Structural Engineer
An existing four span timber bridge, constructed in the 1950’s and located in the Wide Bay Burnett region in south east Queensland, is now considered in poor condition and is required to be replaced.
A business case for the bridge replacement was undertaken which determined that the existing bridge shall be replaced with a six span prestressed concrete deck unit bridge.
The business case also found that the horizontal and vertical alignment of the roadway would need to be altered to accommodate the new bridge. A flooding and scour analysis completed by Aurecon determined potential design scour depths at piers in excess of 15m for the Q2000 flood event and indicated the potential for a full wash away of the embankment on which the northern abutment sits. As such, flood forces and scour became a significant factor during design.
This paper aims to investigate the causes and effects of deep scour and outline the influence of flood loading with respects to AS5100, and their impacts on bridge design. Subsequently, the methods used to mitigate the effects of flooding and scour throughout the bridge replacement design will be examined, in particular; pier design, the separation of load cases into trafficable and non-trafficable scour and provisions for scour protection at abutments.
Elijah Holland is a structural engineer with Aurecon specialising in engineering design, documentation and structural assessment of bridges and other civil infrastructure. He has been involved in a variety of civil infrastructure projects across Queensland and Victoria.
Dr Farhad Nabavi
Managing Director
Technocrete Consulting Engineers
The safety and serviceability of an existing bridge structure can be affected by the changes of loading conditions, material degradation due to environmental exposure conditions, damages due to extreme loading events (impact, blast, earthquake etc.) and/or design and construction errors. In long term, the load bearing capacity of the structure will be dependent on the degradation level of the concrete and steel. Thus, the performance at the structural component level over the time must be evaluated by analysing the rate of change in performance at material level. The minimum acceptable values for performance are called durability limit states.
To provide optimised asset maintenance planning and reliable repair strategy and methodology, the current condition of the structure must be precisely assessed, the mechanism and the level of the deterioration must be carefully investigated and identified, quantitative parameters must be obtained through non-destructive testing (NDT). Consequently, through data analysis, the deterioration rate and then the service life of the structure will be mathematically modelled, and the residual service life of the structure will be precisely predicted.
This paper discusses the several approachs to the service life modelling based on the dominant deterioration mechanism, the level of the deterioration, and data analysis obtained by NDT results.
Farhad Nabai is a Fellow of Engineers Australia and a Chartered Professional Engineer in Civil & Structural Engineering as well as Leadership & Management. Farhad is the Managing Director of Technocrete Consulting Engineers with over twenty years’ experience in Civil and Structural Engineering as a lead designer, professional project manager, construction supervisor, and a scholar. He has designed, inspected, assessed, and provided repair and rehabilitation strategy and methodology for different types of the concrete structures in Australia and overseas. His fields of expertise are “Durability Design, Service Life Modelling, Condition Assessment (structural and durability), Non-Destructive Testing, Structural Health Monitoring, and Repair Strategy and Methodology”. He has published more than 25 International Journal articles and Conference papers in durability and service life of the concrete structures.
Felix Lie
Bridge Engineer
Pedestrian bridge projects present a unique set of challenges compared to road or rail bridges. Designers must manage and address established design criteria (codes, specifications and performance requirements) as well as project specific design criteria. These project specific design criteria are critical to the success of the project. They are unique to each site and require a broad understanding of Civil Engineering to identify, interpret and successfully address.
The project specific design criteria should be summarised and grouped into separate key design considerations. They include all aspects of the bridge life cycle, from inception, through design, construction, operations, maintenance all the way to demolition. Some key design considerations include: the positioning of the bridge; the form of the bridge; urban design; the type of access (lift, ramp or stairs); the existing site constraints; the stakeholders & community expectations; constructability; and operation & maintenance considerations.
This paper explores each of these key design considerations, using relevant examples from completed projects. Jacobs has been involved in several recent projects, including a Pedestrian Bridge over the Cumberland Highway at North Parramatta, a Pedestrian Bridge over Beecroft Road at Beecroft and a Pedestrian Bridge over the Great Western Highway at Bullaburra.  Lessons learned from these projects will be discussed and should prove useful to Engineers that will be involved in the planning, design and construction of future pedestrian bridges.
Felix Lie has five years of experience in engineering consultancy as a structural designer. He has worked on various bridge projects including a 180 metres long twin steel trough girder bridge, pre-stressed concrete bridges, truss bridges and I girder bridges. His areas of proficiency include structural analysis & modelling and structural design.
Gavin Chadbourn
Manager- Asset Strategy & Planning
Rhett Watters
Specialist Structural Engineer – Bridges and Materials
Asset owners collect large amounts of data on their bridges through condition inspection programs. Managing, storing and analysing this data to transform it into information for strategic and tactical decision making is at the core of bridge asset management.
This paper will:
  • Present some insights into how bridge owners can maximise their return on the investment in data collection to better manage bridge and network performance.
  • Describe insights into data collection, data management, analysis and discussion on improvements to how heavy vehicle permits applications can be assessed and management and efficiencies gained.
  • Provide insights into how value can be extracted from inspection programs to deliver cost effective maintenance and capital programs.
With Councils responsible for issuing of heavy vehicle permits a case study will be presented on how inspection data is used to cost effectively develop a network map to manage heavy vehicle permits.
Gavin Chadbourn is a Chartered Civil Engineer and Certified Asset Management Assessor (CAMA) with over 25 years' experience in asset management as a consultant and asset manager with a focus on transport infrastructure. He is a specialist in asset condition inspection programs, asset management ICT planning and deployment; asset management plan development and strategic asset planning.
Rhett Watters is a Chartered Structural Engineer and Project Director based in Newcastle, New South Wales. Rhett has over 8 years’ experience assisting clients in achieving low life cycle cost asset life and durable structures. He is experienced in condition assessment, diagnosis investigation, deterioration modelling, residual life assessment, life cycle costing, detailed design of remedial engineering and construction phase surveillance. Rhett is an active member within the engineering community and has served as a committee member for the Australasian Concrete Repair Association (ACRA)
Grant Dowling
Target Market Manager - Refurbishment
Maintaining and upgrading of bridges and culverts by Asset Owners nationally is a huge and costly task, replacing ageing structures with new is also costly and when this option is chosen the expectation is the new structure will last a life time.
Many site related issues can arise impacting on the reinforced concrete and the long term performance of the structure. Issues arising can be many, or few, depending on the project. Common issues can include low cover, shrinkage cracking, honeycombed concrete and underdesign of the structure just to name a few. This can include that bridge loads have been increased.
This presentation will provide a number of case studies of typical site related issues and the remediation methods used to restore the durability of the structure. Examples to be shown include crack repair, low cover, concrete repair, carbon fibre structural strengthening and will cover adapting to the site conditions to ensure successful repair outcomes.
Grant Dowling is the Target Market Manager - Refurbishment for Sika Australia. Sika is a global leader in manufacture and supply of Construction Products to New Construction and Refurbishment projects. Grant has 25 years experience in Technical, Sales and Marketing in material supply and experience as a Materials Consultant for a Remedial Engineering Company. Grant currently maintains the Concrete Durability range including Concrete repair, Galvanic Sacrificial Anodes, Cementitious Grouts, Chemical Anchoring and Carbon Fibre Structural Strengthening products.
Hai Le - 1
Senior Bridge Engineer
Recently, there is a number of methodologies developed for strengthening concrete bridge beam structures such as deep embedment technique, embedded though section FRP rods, External bonded FRP sheets, near surface mounted FRP rods, external bonded and bolted steel plates, web beam enlargement, and the external posted tension system etc.
The full anchorage ductile steel reinforcement through cored holes is the first project that has been successfully designed and constructed for 1.2 m depth the pre-stress concrete in Tasmania. The Meander Valley Underpass Bridge is a single span pre-stressed superstructure bridge of 18 m long simply supported structure. For inserting the reinforcement bars into the 1.2 m depth pre-stressed concrete girders, the cored holes of 20 mm diameter x 1200 mm depth need to be drilled through 42.3 mm gaps between pre-stress strands from the girder soffit. 
This paper presents the issues that relate to the design process from concept to the detailed strengthening design. Finally, the bridge is strengthened successfully without any damaged bridge structural component.
Hai Le is a Senior Bridge Engineer at GHD in the Hobart office. He holds 2 Bachelor degrees (Software Engineering, Civil Engineering). In addition, Hai also holds a Masters Degree in Construction Engineering. Hai has a wide range of work experience from construction engineering to consultancy. Currently, he is focusing on detailed design, assessment and strengthening for differing bridge types such as the pre-stressed, post-tensioned concrete structures and composite structures. He is fascinated with writing computer programs for bridge structural analysis and design.
Hai Le - 2
Senior Bridge Engineer
Existing bridges are typicaly designed for standard vehicle configurations, with mass and ground contact width less than that of Oversize and Overmass (OSOM) vehicles. Therefore, when OSOM vehicles operate on certain routes there is a need to apply for a heavy load permit.
Currently, the methodology to assess bridge networks including using line load analysis for screening the bridge network (level 1), using the Percentage Live Load distribution factors (PLLF) to determine load actions for each beam based on the line load analysis results (level 2 and 3), undertaking detailed assessment ( level 4) for bridges that failed the screening. The limitations of the bridge assessment level 2 and 3 are unable to calculate accurately live load design actions for bridge beams. On the other hand, detailed bridge assessment is expensive and time consuming.
A new computer program using a 3D-grillage model to undertake structural analysis was successfully developed. This program is the first computer program able to perform bridge structural analysis for all kinds of bridges at network level with different support types. The program can undertake structural analysis for hundreds to thousands of bridges in the network within a couple of hours. Output includes maximum bending moment with coincident shear force, maximum shear force with coincident moment, and maximum support reaction at nodes.
In this presentation, the program will perform structural analysis at level 4 for typical bridges in a bridge network. The theory and structural analysis method to develop the program will also be briefly presented.
Hai Le is a Senior Bridge Engineer at GHD in the Hobart office. He holds 2 Bachelor degrees (Software Engineering, Civil Engineering). In addition, Hai also holds a Master Degree in Construction Engineering. Hai has a wide range work experience from construction engineering to consultancy. Currently, he is focusing on detailed design, assessment and strengthening for differing bridge types such as the pre-stressed, post-tensioned concrete structures and composite structures. He is fascinated with writing computer programs for bridge structural analysis and design.
Hamidreza Sadeghi
Senior Geotechnical Engineer
Katahira Engineers International JAPAN
This paper reports the soft ground improvement works and studies done for an Extradosed Bridge under construction in Kawkareik, Myanmar.
Among all the required design efforts and challenges in construction of the presented bridge, the soft ground ‌beneath the bridge alignment and especially both abutments were of major concerns.
The very soft silty clay that extended in various levels of the ground had such a complex geometry and variation that called for supplementary geotechnical investigations. This soft layer would cause huge damages to the structure and roadway through excessive residual settlements if not well-treated.
The other key challenge was how to accelerate the expected consolidation settlement in a cost-effective fashion.
This paper summarises the key steps in the ground model and material parameter assessment, numerical analysis and monitoring process of the soft ground settlement for the Extradosed Bridge in Myanmar.
Hamidreza (Hamid) Sadeghi  is a structural/geotechnical engineer. Hamid has more than 14 years of consultancy services experience of various infrastructure study and design. Having studied his masters’ in geotechnical engineering in Tehran, Iran he did his Ph.D. in Kyoto University in 2014 and has worked for Japanese consultant companies since then.
Henry Zhang
Technical Executive, Geotechnics
WSP Australia
Large diameter (>900mm) driven tubular steel piles have become a preferred footing system for support of buildings, bridges and other structures because of their relative ease of installation, high capacity and low cost and have played an important role in the Pacific Highway upgrade project.
This paper will discuss case histories of driven tubular steel piles on the on-going Woolgoolga to Ballina (W2B) Pacific Highway Upgrade project. This $5 billion project is Australia’s largest regional infrastructure project and will upgrade about 155 kilometers of highway to four-lane, divided road. The project starts about six kilometers north of Woolgoolga (north of Coffs Harbour) and ends approximately six kilometers south of Ballina. Roads and Maritime Services (RMS) has engaged Pacific Complete, comprising Laing O'Rourke and WSP, to partner with the RMS Pacific Highway Office to deliver the project. Pacific Complete will deliver the project using a Delivery Partner model similar to the approach used for the construction of the London Olympics infrastructure.
There are 100 bridges on W2B, driven tubular steel piles are adopted on 43 of them. Three major river crossings: 870m long new bridge over Shark Creek at Shark Creek, 1.5 km long new bridge over Clarence River at Harwood, and 1.0km long new bridge over Richmond River at Broadwater. A total of 762 driven piles have been installed and approximately 39% were tested using Pile Dynamic Analyzer (PDA). The pile inner diameter varies from 900 to 2400 mm and the pile penetration length ranges from 13 to 65 m. The pile ultimate compression load increases from 3 to 24 MN per pile.
Common practice, challenges with design, installation and site verification will be discussed. State-of-practice and good lessons learnt on driven pile design and construction will be shared. Recommendations on drivability analysis and hammer selection, estimate of realistic unit shaft and base resistance for pile procurement, risk mitigation of piles terminating in soils, hard rocks and basalt, commentary on local driven pile specifications (RMS, TMR) will be provided.
Henry Zhang is a Technical Executive with WSP in ANZ. He has over 20 years of professional experience in geotechnical engineering design and construction in Australia, Singapore and China. Henry has broad experience in geotechnical design and construction phase services on foundations, soft ground, deep excavations and retaining walls and finite element analysis on complex soil-structure interaction. Henry’s leading technical skills have been demonstrated by publishing 21 technical papers/presentations and giving 3 invited lectures (at UTS & Sydney Uni) on soft ground improvement, retaining walls and pile foundations.
Ian Ward
Associate Director and Roads & Rail Leader (Vic)
TSA Management
The Level Crossing Removal Project (LXRP) is a dedicated Victorian State Government transport development and delivery agency responsible for the removal of 75 of the most dangerous and congested at-grade road-rail level crossing sites across the Melbourne metropolitan region.
The core scope for these projects is the design and construction of grade-separated over and under bridge structures and approaches. This includes consideration for shared user path (SUP) requirements in addition to significant road and rail trafficable bridges and underpasses.
As part of these works, various retaining wall systems have been constructed for the bridge approaches adjacent to abutment walls, based on applicable Standards and/or Asset Owner requirements.
This presentation provides an overview of these soil retention structures and discusses the challenges in addressing Stakeholder concerns and ensuring an adequate level of integrity assurance for the final asset owners and managers, yet still ensuring cost effectiveness for the State.
Ian Ward, Snr Exec MBA (MBS), BE (Civil), FIEAust, is a civil/structural engineer and project manager with over 25 years transport infrastructure experience throughout the project lifecycle; from initial planning and design to construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance. He is highly collaborative with an acute focus on stakeholders and outcomes. Ian is passionate about delivering projects which enhance people’s lives and revitalise communities.
Jeremy Jennings
Senior Bridge/Structural Engineer
Design of the new, 190m long, Opawa River Bridge was complicated by numerous conflicting project constraints and site characteristics that required the unconventional use of standard bridge beam technology and a rational approach to soil-structure interaction to deliver a resilient, cost-effective solution.
The new bridge alignment was constrained by existing structures, property boundaries and approach tie-ins which restricted deck height and resulted in a partially curved deck. Piers were positioned to avoid the main river channel, align with the curve transition point and optimise the span and barrier panel arrangements. The hydraulic impact of the new bridge on the scour-prone highway and rail bridges downstream was minimised by providing moderately long spans supported on single-column, hammerhead piers and setting the deck soffit above the 2500-year flood stage. These factors drove a slender SHC beam with continuous in-situ deck solution.
A rational approach to soil-structure interaction and ground improvement design addressed the challenging geotechnical conditions at the site: high seismicity (design PGA of 0.66g); highly liquefiable soil; and steep approach batters. Limiting liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and subsidence to within code limits with ground improvement was considered prohibitively expensive. Stone columns were installed to limit displacement to within structural capacity while meeting the seismic performance philosophy.
Jeremy Jennings is a Chartered Professional Engineer and a Senior Bridge/Structural Engineer for WSP Opus based in Christchurch, New Zealand. He has 17 years’ experience in the design and asset management of bridges in New Zealand.
Jeremy Waldin
Technical Principal
SH6 Waiho Bailey Bridge is located just south of the Franz Josef township in the South Island of New Zealand and is a critical connection for the West Coast. The Bailey bridge was first constructed in 1990 and has since been raised and extended three times due to significant aggradation of the river bed. During a massive storm event on March 26, 2019 the northern abutment and northern-most pier were washed out leading to collapse of several spans of the Bailey bridge.
The cost to the West Coast region in terms of lost business and tourism, caused by the loss of the bridge, was estimated to be in excess of $1M per day. Consequently, there was intense pressure on the New Zealand Transport Agency to restore access across the river and this received national media attention and scrutiny.
As Team Leader of the West Coast Bridge Management Contract, Jeremy Waldin lead the $6.5M emergency recovery, establishing and managing an emergency response team which worked across multiple organisations to recover this 170m long bridge in just 18 days.
The presentation will describe the damage from the storm event and explain the challenges which needed to be overcome to recover the structure. Finally, the presentation will highlight key lessons from the events, many of which can be applied to emergency response in general.
Jeremy Waldin is a Chartered Professional Engineer and a Technical Principal for WSP Opus based in Christchurch, New Zealand. He has 12 years’ experience in the design and asset management of bridges and other structures throughout New Zealand.
Jimmy Wong
Senior Structural Engineer
The 45 year old Mount Street Pedestrian Bridge is a cable stayed bridge that provides a cyclist and pedestrian link connecting Perth CBD and Kings Park over the Mitchell Freeway in the City of Perth. The single central mast has visible cracking in the cable stay anchorage zone and has been monitored as deteriorating over the past 20 years. The live load capacity was rated at only 2 kPa as a result of the degraded mast and associated concrete strength reduction. The external stayed cables also showed signs of surface corrosion. As the load carrying capacity has been compromised by the degradation of the mast section, protective coating and crack injection repairs would not achieve the required long term solution and, therefore, replacement of mast and stayed cables were adopted as the preferred remedial works by Main Roads WA.
The main constraint for the works was the bridge position over a major freeway. Any closures would result in significant impact to the community. Initial assessment indicated that the bridge would not be stable if any of the external stayed cables were removed, and therefore, temporary propping would be required at all times. Conventional temporary support underneath the bridge was not feasible due to the Freeway and so a temporary mast system with stayed cables was developed to support the bridge during the replacement works.
This paper presents the options considered, and details used, for the temporary support system during mast and cables replacement with minimal traffic disruptions. The details of loads transfer from the existing/permanent stay cables to temporary stay cables and vice versa will be discussed.
Jimmy Wong is a Senior Structural Engineer and has over 15 years of engineering design experience in heavy infrastructure projects. His background is predominantly in conceptual design through to detailed design for numerous bridges and marine structures in Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Currently, he is focusing on inspection, assessment and refurbishment design of both timber and concrete bridges
John Vazey
Engineering Manager
A stormwater culvert under a busy arterial road in Mayfield was identified to be damaged with sections of roof damage and wall cracking in the body of the structure. Based on the visual assessment of the damage, the structure was condemned. It was then reassessed with a 2D FEA analysis to be adequate. Both of these assessments lacked evidence.
This project indicates how the team at EngAnalysis used a focused measurement program to identify the current residual capacity, current operational risks and monitor the rate of deterioration in the structure using a long-term measurement program. The entire test was established, operated and interpreted with no interruption to in-service operation and provided adequate information to establish the FEA based assessment was conservative and the deterioration and change over 12 months dominated by soil saturation rather than load response.
The project indicates that the a small scale test with precision measurement can provide adequate evidence to indicate residual capacity and assess deterioration rates leading to the 5 – 10 year life extension for this structure.
The innovations in this project are the application of “enough science” to provide this service with affordable confidence, and the rational integration of weather and soil saturation data with weekly automatic reporting.
John Vazey has over 20 years of consulting experience assessing structural response through a combination of measurement and modelling. John and the team at EngAnalysis bring a focus on delivering data driven engineering outcomes to guide practical decisions.
Jonathan Herguais
Director Structures & Civil Infrastructure ANZ
SYSTRA Scott Lister, Melbourne
Ronan Chesnel
Senior Structure Engineer (Technical Manager on Manila L1CEP in Philippines)
Common structural solutions to support an elevated metro system usually consist of either a viaduct built by segmental construction (e.g. box girder or Big U-shape girder) or a viaduct built by full span precast construction (e.g. Small U-shape girder).
Each solution has pros and cons that are weighted for each project. Full span precast solutions are faster to erect compared to segmental construction and are more economical quantity wise. These solutions also allow for the use of longitudinal pretensioning which is more economical than posttensioning (no anchorages, no ducts, no grouting), but are usually comprised of two independent structures (each one supporting 1 track). The need for independent structures is due to the width and weight limitations to be considered during the transport and erection stage. Full span precast solutions are generally straight, in plan view and in longitudinal profile and include an extra width to accommodate the gauge in curved area while segmental span geometry can follow exactly the geometry of the track alignment
The aim of this paper is to describe the constraints of the Manila L1 Cavite Extension project (L1CEP) in the Philippines and the subsequent viaduct design process that led to the development of the Pi-Girder. The constraints included limited space on precast yard, Contractor decision to use full span precast and launching gantry to avoid interfacing with Manila busy roads, typical span length greater than 34m, and narrow ROW. The Pi-Girder combines the benefits of both solutions previously described, i.e. a full span precast solution supporting two tracks, economical quantity wise, allowing a fast construction and fitting in a very constrained urban environment.
Jonathan Herguais was the Project Manager on Manila L1CEP in the Philippines. Coming from a structural engineering background, he has been involved in numerous international transportation projects from Concept study to Detailed Design stage. He developed a solid Project Management experience in complex Infrastructure projects involving multi-disciplinary teams, in a multi-site production environment, for projects in Asia and in the Middle East. He gained extensive managerial experience as Operations Director of SYSTRA’s Korean subsidiary, an engineering company specialised in bridge design. From February 2019, he is based in Melbourne where he now acts as Director Structures & Civil Infrastructure ANZ.
Ronan Chesnel , FRANCE, has extensive experience in the design and calculation of bridges (reinforced and prestressed concrete), from conceptual to detailed design stage, both in France and internationally. He has worked as project manager for the CTW130 industrial railway network in Saudi Arabia. At the moment he is acting as Technical Manager supporting the Contractor on site for the construction of the Manila L1 Cavite Extension Project in Philippines.
Joseph Marra
Department Manager
Global Design Technology, BELGIUM
Numerical simulation represents complex physical phenomena performed by solving calculations based on a mathematical model with finite element equations. It is one of the most common ways to virtually simulate the behaviour of a product in its real environment. As a catalyst for innovation, digital simulation represents an important activity in the product development process.
Applied to the vehicle restraint systems, digital simulation makes it possible to virtually reproduce the physical behaviour of a reference crash-test. Therefore small deviations from physically crash-tested configurations can be simulated with high levels of confidence. Getting the best prediction requires knowledge of advanced modeling techniques. Powerful technological tools tend to lead to realistic simulations. It is in this context that some products, and/or adaptations are validated by simulation.
In order to guarantee a sufficient level of accuracy, there exist validation procedures which regulate the process of validating a reference model. The two main documents are the European TR16303 and the American NCHRP179. The Australian Standard AS3845 requires validation to an appropriate methodology, however Australian authorities have identified NCHRP179 as the acceptable method. The use of both methodologies proposed by TR16303 and NCHRP179 will be applied to a practical case.
Joseph Marra is an engineer managing the “crash and dynamic” department, with over 15 years of experience in the road safety equipment calculation and normalization. He is a member of the standardization committee for EN 1317 and he participates to the TRB committee in charge of US regulations (NCHRP350 -> MASH).
Alexandre Dewaulle is a calculation engineer who studied in the University of Valenciennes, FRANCE. He's performing simulation of crashes according to EN1317 and NCHRP350/MASH since more than 10 years.
David De Saedeleer is an engineer, CEO of DESAMI (founded in 2012), with over 15 years of experience in the road safety devices. He is a member of the standardization committee for EN 1317 and of Consultative Council COPRO which defines the rules of aggregation of road restraint systems in BELGIUM.
Ken Maxwell
Technical Director, Bridges
Arcadis Australia Pacific
Due to predicted ground movements from proposed tunnel excavation work for the WestConnex Stage 3B (Rozelle Interchange) project in Sydney, a unique c1918 road bridge at Lilyfield was structurally analysed to check its theoretical capacity to withstand the anticipated horizontal and vertical movements.
Bridge grillage analysis was used to simulate traffic loads, permanent loads, and predicted pier and abutment settlements, whereby the load effects induced in the bridge superstructure by these concurrent load cases were assessed.
A second project involved the assessment of defects associated with the structurally undesirable combination of skewed spans, slender trestle-type piers, and a poor bearing articulation arrangement at a c1959 road bridge at Fairy Meadow, a northern suburb of Wollongong, NSW.
The presentation and associated paper describe the structural assessment and analysis work undertaken on these two bridge assessment projects. Speaker
Ken Maxwell is a bridge engineer and Technical Director, Bridges with Arcadis Australia Pacific, in their Sydney office. He graduated Bachelor of Engineering (Civil, 1st Class Honours) from the University of Technology, Sydney and Master of Engineering Studies (Structural and Foundation Engineering) from the University of Sydney. He has been involved in the assessment and design of road and railway bridges for over 30 years, having designed over 85 bridges. Ken is a Fellow of The Institution of Engineers, Australia, a Chartered Professional Engineer (Civil and Structural) of The Institution of Engineers, Australia, and a member of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering.
Ken O'Neill
NSW Bridges Leader
 As part of the new Grafton Bridge project, a 1930s three span concrete railway bridge needed to be demolished and replaced to accommodate the new upgraded road on the norther side of the Clarence River. A steel truss bridge was chosen for the bridge replacement as the overall depth of structure was constrained by the existing rail alignment and the new road underneath.
The demolition and installation of the new bridge needed to occur over a single 72 hour track possession which was successfully completed in June 2018.
The paper will outline key lessons learned for the demolition of the existing bridge, the re-use of the existing pier and abutment to carry shorter end spans and the design and detailing of the steel truss.
Ken O’Neill leads Aurecon's bridges team in NSW and is a Technical Director within the Infrastructure group based in Sydney. He has twenty years’ experience in the detailed design, documentation and construction of major highway, motorway and rail projects in NSW and Victoria. Ken was the Design Manager for this project and worked on the job from tender design right through to construction.
Kim Guttridge
Senior Principal Structural Engineer
Tim Pistono
Structural Engineer
Satyajit Datar
Technical Director, Infrastructure
This paper focuses on the designs and alternatives in retention of the rail embankments up to 9m high for the Caulfield to Dandenong rail line in Melbourne. The project removed nine level crossings over 13 kilometres of rail corridor, requiring 1.6 km of approach embankments.
The team value engineered various types; Large L precast elements stitched to a footing, tension tied walls and planked soldier pile wall. Constraints included, construction in a narrow live rail corridor within a narrower safe zone, rapid construction in corridor occupation times and sustainability targets; re-using as much excavated material as fill as possible.
Covered will be:
  • Loads and the wall’s response to loads including;
    • Fill compaction comparing construction design with AS 4678-2002 Appendix J guidance.
    • Train live load to AS5100.2
    • Earthquake loads
  • A practical overview of soil-structure interaction and geotechnical factors
  • Durability and catering for direct current (DC) traction power and structural segregation and electrical isolation for earthing and bonding.
  • Construction benefits and design/structural efficiency of the precast walls in comparison with in-situ walls and other systems
  • Architectural criteria and impact on engineering constraints.
Kim Guttridge has been a consulting engineer for 30 years in Australia and South East Asia. He cites projects in Hong Kong including Hong Kong’s Central Station as pivotal in his career in retention, underground and bridge structures. He has been involved in Melbourne’s rail infrastructure expansion for 15 years. Beginning with the Craigieburn Rail Extension and Middleborough Road Grade Separation in 2005 through to the Caulfield to Dandenong elevated rail viaducts and Melbourne’s Metro expansion currently being constructed.
Tim Pistono's seven years of experience has been focused on the transport industry. His experience includes the inspection, design and verification of precast prestressed bridges and underpasses, culvert structures, retaining walls, OHW masts, and heavy load analyses. Timothy also gained experience in water/wastewater design for various SA Water assets. This includes steel pipe structural design, pipe support structures, concrete repair, upgrades to access of water tanks and the conditional assessment of a Victorian–era masonry arch water tank. 
Satyajit Datar, BE (Hons), CPEng, RPEQ, FIEAust has been a consulting engineer for 35 years mostly in Australia and New Zealand, with stints in the Middle East, SE Asia, India, USA and Canada. He has worked in several market sectors including residential, commercial and industrial, manufacturing, defence, water, sports and leisure, food and beverage; and for the last few years with Aurecon, has been leading structural teams for transport infrastructure projects in Melbourne.
Liam Holloway
National Technical Manager
Duratec Australia
The routine visual inspection of our bridge infrastructure is a fundamental asset management tool. The information gathered from visual inspections is used to make decisions on when to undertake invasive investigations, and for to determine what maintenance works will be required.
Visual inspections rely heavily on the experience, skill and capability of the inspector to identify, capture and report defect data. Despite having prescribed inspection guidelines and reporting techniques, there is still a large amount of variability introduced to the data through the human factor. Visual inspection is also a very labour intensive task often requiring an inspector to conduct a close visual inspection of every structural element, which requires a significant amount of time, specialised access and investment. It is these factors that make the visual inspection of infrastructure, like bridges, a task that would greatly benefit from the technological advancements machine learning and digital visualisation methods.
Machine learning algorithms based on Fujifilm’s medical imaging technology, used to map human blood vessels, have been applied to the task of mapping cracks on concrete. In the past 12 months, Fujifilm, in collaboration with Duratec Australia, have undertaken several trials using this technology on structures in Australia.
This paper presents the findings from these trials and will demonstrate the ability of the technology to map cracks, uniquely identify them, position them, measure their length and widths down to 0.1mm with an accuracy of 95%. The paper will also discuss the potential benefits of achieving this level of accuracy and repeatability in terms of long term bridge asset management and maintenance planning.
Liam Holloway’s unique skills and expertise as a materials engineer specialising in durability and corrosion, traverse key infrastructure sectors including marine, mining, defence and energy. Liam completed his PhD in the field of corrosion inhibition and monitoring for reinforced concrete structures at Monash University. Following this he has worked in both the consulting and contracting fields with a focus on asset condition assessment, remediation and maintenance.
Logan Mullaney
Managing Director
InQuik Bridging Systems
On the 13th August 2019 Upper Lachlan Shire Council in NSW advised that temporary load limits would come into effect for twelve timber bridges in the Shire. The temporary load limits had been based on advice from consulting firm Pitt & Sherry which had recently undertaken an assessment of select bridges in the Shire to determine safety and load capacity.
 Reids Flat timber bridge
In this presentation Logan will outline the collaborative process, project details and works program that enabled three of the impacted bridges to be replaced with InQuik Integral bridges designed to AS5100 (2017) and SM1600 rating. The bridges were delivered in a total project window of just under 2 months. The quick construction period from Mid Oct 2019 till mid Dec 2019.was of great benefit to the isolated communities and farming community impacted by the reduced temporary load limits. Design included "whole of life" costs and met safety in design considerations.
Bridge specifications are:
  • Julong Rd is a 9 x 4.8m
  • Reids Flat is a 12 x 7.2m
  • Wilcox Rd a 12 x 4.8m
  • All SM1600 - Integral bridges 
                             Julong Road                                   Julong Road replacement bridge                                                   Wilcox Road
Logan Mullaney was appointed Managing Director of InQuik Pty Ltd after 10 years in the residential and modular construction industry. He leads a team on manufacturing, sales, marketing and delivery of the InQuik Bridging system in Australia, The Pacific and NZ. Logan is a co-inventor on elements of the bridge system, has a broad knowledge on patents, and has been intimately involved since the system was invented. He has been involved in building bridges all over Australia, with several major projects and rapid adoption means that Logan is usually out on site building bridges, which is what he loves to do.
Madison Bower
Timber Structures Engineer
Wood Research and Development
The Cowley Creek Road Bridge project was included into the Bridge Renewal Programme as it was determined to provide significant economic benefit to several industries, such as sugar cane, bananas and aquaculture. The proposal targeted the load limited bridge for upgrade to allow much needed access by heavy vehicles into these industries, that accounted for 280ha of cane, trees and ponds. Madison Bower, was an employee of Cassowary Coast Regional Council during this phase of the project and where he was  given the opportunity to research future bridge upgrades to strengthen Cassowary Coast Regional Council’s road network.
Madison Bower, now an employee of Wood Research and Development, was also involved with the completion of the bridge, where he was   involved in delivery of the load certification for Cowley Creek Road Bridge. The upgraded structure is now unrestricted in load, increased from one to two lanes, and two spans to a single span, and improved safety with better alignment through upgrade of the approaches.
This presentation aims to highlight what Madison learnt from being on both the client’s side and then the designer’s side during different stages of the project and will include the positives/negatives, key learnings and different perspectives.
Madison Bower graduated from Queensland University of Technology with a Bachelor of Engineering (Civil and Construction) with a dedicated interest in Structural Engineering. His career started with two local governments, with the most recent one being Cassowary Coast Regional Council, one of Wood Research and Development’s clients. He then transitioned to a timber engineering role with WRD during the construction phase of Cowley Creek Bridge, where he has gained significant experience in design of timber structures.
Marcia Prelog
Tharwa Bridge is an impressive example of restoring a historically significant timber bridge for posterity. The renowned Australian engineer Percy Allan designed the original four span timber truss across the Murrumbidgee River, on the southern border of the ACT in 1895. At over 5m above the river, it provides safe, high level access to the local town during flood occurrences.
Due to significant deterioration over the years, the bridge was reconstructed between 2008 and 2011 with collaboration from Roads ACT, RMS and Aurecon.
This bridge structure is of exceptional national heritage significance due to being one of the oldest surviving Allan trusses in service and the innovative design utilised at the time. It is a key feature of Tharwa’s identity.
The restoration employed innovative, modern techniques in timber construction, providing a more sustainable use of timber through increased durability. Now, several years on, we are able to reflect upon and share the key lessons learnt and techniques adopted in the maintenance phase.
This paper covers the key design solutions for timber durability and how they have fared over the years, as well as some of the innovative maintenance tasks undertaken.
Marcia Prelog is an Associate within Aurecon who has extensive experience in a variety of bridge structures in Australia and overseas. Her 18 years in the Bridges discipline encompasses design in steel, concrete, composites and timber, working with a range of clients such as RMS, Sydney Trains and Sydney Metro as well as local councils within greater Sydney. Marcia’s current passion is to explore how we can improve the management and longevity of current and future bridges.
Matt Duncanson
Senior Engineer – Materials Technology
SMEC Australia
The Red Bridge is an iconic structure for South-East Queensland. Originally part of the highway connecting Brisbane to the Gold Coast,  it has since 1965 been enjoyed by pedestrians and cyclists. Built in 1930, the main three spans across the Logan River consist of a steel through truss with cast in-situ concrete deck, supported on concrete piers.
The most recent major works undertaken on the bridge were circa 2006/2007, which involved protective coating application, however technical details and records are scarce. Although the bridge was painted a vibrant red colour, significant fading had occurred in the areas exposed to ultraviolet light, and corrosion of the steel had commenced in tight areas such as the truss nodes.
In 2017, detailed investigations of the bridge were undertaken. A key outcome of this investigation was to determine an economical and technically justified methodology for re-coating the bridge, ensuring long term colour fastness and corrosion protection.
Re-coating and repairs for steel and concrete elements of the bridge commenced in February 2019, with works due to be completed by November 2019.
This paper provides details of the project from initial investigations and the technical aspects of coating selection, through to completion of works. In the presentation emphasis will be placed on the challenges faced during the construction phase and how they were overcome.
Matt Duncanson is a Senior Engineer in SMEC’s Materials Technology team based on the Gold Coast. He has been involved in the investigation and remediation of dozens of bridges in Queensland. Matt aims to provide practical and justifiable long term bridge management solutions, which are tailored to the specific needs of the project.
Dr Oliver de Lautour
Tamavua bridge carries Queens Road across the Tamavua River in Suva, Fiji and is the main transport and freight route into Suva.
Fiji Roads Authority has appointed Fletcher Construction South Pacific and design partner Aurecon to replace the existing bridge with a new bridge downstream of the existing structure. Replacement of the existing bridge is required due to condition and load restrictions on the existing structure.
The replacement structure is a 90m long prestressed concrete bridge with six equal spans supported on driven steel piles into bedrock. Fill embankments are required on both approaches and require ground treatment consisting of Basal Reinforcement and wick drains on the northern embankment to control expected soil settlements.
This paper will cover the structural and geotechnical design of the bridge structure and earthworks embankments. The paper will focus on seismic design, soil-structure interaction and how ‘ground squeezing’ effects from settlement of the Northern embankment was accommodated in the design.
Dr Oliver de Lautour is an Associate at Aurecon, New Zealand and leads the NZ bridge team. He has with 14 years’ experience in structural design and is a Chartered Professional Engineer. He has a PhD in Civil Engineering studying Structural Health Monitoring. His background is predominantly in the detailed design of bridge structures in the Australasian and South Pacific regions. His experience includes undertaking complex bridge analysis and design, working collaboratively in multi-disciplinary design teams and bridge aesthetics. He has previously presented at the Small Bridges Conference
Patrick Bigg
General Manager
Timber Restoration Systems
In 2019, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Services (QPWS) issued a Request for Tender for the replacement of 3 curtain log girder bridges on Fraser Island. The material source was primarily focused on the utilisation of salvaged hardwood timber located on K’Gari, previously deemed to be of an acceptable standard to support a 20T load rating. Timber Restoration Systems were awarded the contract and successfully installed 3 replacement structures on time and to budget.
Figure 1: Alligator Creek #1 Bridge – Originally a curtain Log Girder Design (left) was replaced with a girder under design (right) equipped with a transverse hardwood deck and kerb system.
Each of the 3 bridges, Deep Creek #2, Alligator Creek #1 and Alligator Creek #2 utilised reclaimed timber sourced directly from an island inventory store in combination with new local hardwood solid sawn members to replace the existing curtain log girder designs with 20T rated girder under solutions.
The 3 bridges blend into the surrounding landscape and were constructed with minimal disruption to the environment and indigenous cultural heritage assets. The bridge designs utilised connection systems that increase the longevity of the timber substructure, superstructure and deck.
Patrick Bigg will refer to the above project and elaborate on the construction parameters applicable on Fraser Island. He will also discuss the advantages and cost savings made utilising existing materials sourced directly from Fraser Island.
Patrick (Pat) Bigg graduated from University of Tasmania with a Bachelor of Engineering (Civil) in 2014. Following a year in Tasmanian Local Government, he joined Wood Research and Development in 2016 as a Timber Structures Engineer where he has specialised in the design of bridge elements, complex connections within timber structures and Multi-frame modelling of structures. Following several stints as site engineer for bridge retrofit and renewal projects, Pat has now taken up the position of General Manager Australia for Timber Restoration Systems.
Paul Lunniss
Project Manager
Inner West Council
Alistair Hyde Page
Environmental Engineer
Inner West Council
In 2017 a landslide occurred at Dibble Avenue Waterhole Marrickville. The waterhole is a flooded former brick pit surrounded by residential properties and a playground. The landslide created a 3 to 4 m high back scarp which was within 3 m of an adjacent three-storey apartment building.
Back scarp one day after the landslide 
Emergency works were carried out with the advice from geo-engineering consultancies to ensure short term stabilisation of the landslip. Further investigations were carried out to develop a concept design to stabilise entire waterhole banks. Ancillary investigations were also carried out to address the management of the local ecology, water quality, heritage items and contamination during construction works.
The detailed design for bank stabilisation has been developed which address’s the design factors as well accounting for the residential, constructability, sustainability and funding constraints. Works are expected to start early 2020.


Paul Lunniss has completed a Master of Engineering and working in Local Government with experience in managing the construction and maintenance of civil infrastructure in both metropolitan Sydney and regional NSW. 
Alistair Hyde Page is an environmental engineer working in Local Government with experience in geotechnical engineering and remediating contaminated sites from investigation through to design and construction.
Peter Routledge
Technical Principal
The Rakaia Gorge No. 1 Bridge on SH77 is a Category 1 Historic Place constructed circa 1882. The 55m span ‘Bollman-like’ truss is recognised as unique in the world and is also one of the oldest wrought iron bridges in New Zealand.
To ensure that this important structure continued to provide a safe and resilient transport route, the New Zealand Transport Agency commissioned WSP Opus to design the deck replacement. The difficult-access conditions and the scaffold required for the deck replacement created an opportunity to undertake seismic strengthening works in parallel.
During design there were numerous complexities to be considered associated with the load capacity, heritage significance, safety, seismic resilience and traffic management. One of the innovations on this project was the use of NiuDeck (with steel transoms) as an alternative to traditional hardwood transoms and deck planks.
WSP Opus sensitively balanced the conflicting objectives of state highway operations and heritage preservation – refurbishing the deck and providing seismic resilience to this strategically important structure, whilst respecting the high significance of the heritage fabric and successfully preserving the exceptional landmark appearance of the bridge.
Peter Routledge is a Chartered Professional Engineer and a Technical Principal for WSP Opus based in Christchurch, New Zealand. He has 17 years’ experience in the design and asset management of bridges in the UK and New Zealand.
Rhett Watters
Specialist Structural Engineer – Bridges and Materials
Condition assessment and investigation are critical to the development of remedial engineering solutions for transport infrastructure. The information gained from detailed investigation, including deterioration mechanisms and residual life assessment, forms the basis of a repair design and can minimise the risk of premature repair failure and extend service life of an existing structure.
This paper will explore the use of structural investigation methods for transport infrastructure to understand both condition and performance. Beyond the visual inspection, a detailed investigation considers the severity and causes of deterioration through testing, such as concrete sampling, in-situ diagnostic testing and laboratory testing. Investigation findings subsequently inform residual life estimates, which are required for scheduling monitoring and remedial works. Following investigation and understanding of current condition, performance, or load carrying capacity can be readily assessed.
This paper will describe the role structural investigation plays in the development of effective repair specifications by way of case study considering investigation methods, findings and development of remedial solutions.
Rhett Watters is a Chartered Structural Engineer and Project Director based in Newcastle, New South Wales. Rhett has over 8 years’ experience assisting clients in achieving low life cycle cost asset life and durable structures. He is experienced in condition assessment, diagnosis investigation, deterioration modelling, residual life assessment, life cycle costing, detailed design of remedial engineering and construction phase surveillance. Rhett is an active member within the engineering community and has served as a committee member for the Australasian Concrete Repair Association (ACRA).
Rob Pallot
Senior Engineer - Bridges and Structures
The Ballarat Line Upgrade was a $500m project that included the design and construction of five new railway station pedestrian overpasses in regional Victoria. Completed in 2020, this alliance project between LendLease, Coleman Rail, V/Line, RPV and SMEC was the first of several Regional Rail Revival projects upgrading Victoria’s aging, and expanding number of, regional railways stations.
Different structural pedestrian overpass solutions were required for each of the five railway stations due to their respective specific site constraints including: integration with existing station infrastructure; differing geometric width and architectural requirements; provision for future rail quadruplication – i.e. future longitudinal extension of the continuous overpass structures; and site access constraints.
However, there were competing design pressures to utilise homogeneous project-wide details; factors included: project-wide detailing for efficiency and economy of delivery and fabrication; structural and material optimisation; and seeking a consistency along the railway line for structural maintenance and aesthetic purposes.
Figure 1: Rockbank Station Overpass
Three primary different structural forms were selected for the five different overpasses, including:
  • Three Warren trusses (16.4m main span by 3.5m wide);
  • One Vierendeel truss (16.4m main span by 7m wide)
  • and - one ‘battle-deck’, precast concrete beams with cast in fabricated steel I-girders, superstructure (18.2m main span by 8.4m wide on 13° skew with 13.6m cantilevered back-spans).
This paper discusses the tension between design considerations for station specific solutions and for project-wide homogenous structural designs.
Rob Pallot is a Senior Structural engineer at SMEC, Melbourne. He has over 8 years’ experience in structural design and is a Chartered Professional Engineer. He has a broad range of structural engineering experience across various major transport infrastructure projects. Rob worked as the structural design lead and later as the CPS design lead on the Ballart Line Upgrade project.
Robert Meiklejohn
Senior Professional
Tim Heldt
Chief Technology Leader
Bridge management processes utilised by most local government agencies are based on a “maintenance management” approach rather than an “asset management” approach.
Maintenance management relies on a cycle of data capture including structure condition, input into an asset management database, development of a maintenance plan and the implementation of the subsequent works program, feeding back into the data capture phase. As part of this process, the condition is effectively used as a proxy for risk, with those bridges with the higher condition rating receiving prioritisation for maintenance funding. By failing to consider the full risk context of their network, these current business processes typically fail to fully realise organisational goals. It is clear that this is an area for improvement, but that a lack of guidelines exists to allow bridge risk to be adequately considered.
This paper will propose an approach that will assist local governments to transition from a maintenance management program to an asset management program through an improved understanding of risk. Fundamental to this approach will be to establish corporate risk context for the organisation and how this relates to the management of structures. Functional requirements that demonstrate alignment with corporate processes for the quantification of bridge risk will be outlined. This process will allow local governments to align with the fundamentals of asset management, as outlined in ISO55000, and provide a robust framework for asset management decisions.
Co-Authors: Robert Meiklejohn, Edward Eskew, Darby Johannessen, Neal Lake and Tim Heldt
Robert Meiklejohn is a structural engineer with 5 years’ experience in highway structures asset management. He has an extensive background in all levels of bridge inspections and has been a project leader for several asset management projects delivered under the NACoE research agreement with TMR. He is also a national trainer for Level 1 and 2 bridge inspections.
Tim Heldt leads the ARRB structures team to deliver quality consulting and research outcomes in the field of structures, asset management services, and technical evaluation. Emphasis is placed on providing value through better (substantiated) decisions. Tim has over 30 years’ experience in multi discipline engineering and project delivery.
Rohan McElroy
Principal Structural Engineer
icubed consulting
Over the past 5 years icubed consulting have been developing in-house software and procedures on the excitation performance of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) pedestrian footbridges. icubed had concerns with pedestrian induced excitation performance due to the lightweight nature of FRP structures.
Further research and testing was undertaken for the design and construction of FRP truss footbridges initially spanning 12m to 27m. In the last two years we have developed single span bridges from 30m to 67m long. This process included scale-model testing of truss members and connections, fatigue performance and methods to assess pedestrian induced excitation using spreadsheets and Finite Element software.
A pulsating force load was produced using Fourier Transformation equations to replicate the vertical and lateral impact of a footfall load was applied at mid-span of the deck and factored using formulae to evaluate the effect of multiple pedestrians walking in-sync and out-of-sync. A transient solver produced graphs of maximum nodal accelerations under various pedestrian cases which were then compared to acceleration limitations outlined in other literature. icubed discovered that in-sync walking load cases could amplify deck accelerations by a considerable amount. To counter this, truss chords were filled with a low viscosity grout acting as a mass dampener to limit excitation potential. Acceleration data was collected using an Android smartphone to compare theoretical models against actual in-situ performance.
icubed have also started looking into dynamic wind excitation of these structures using open-source software openFOAM. We have been using this software to model 2D cross sections of the pedestrian bridges to undertake a sensitivity analysis for the critical wind velocity that may cause the structure to self-excite.
Rohan McElroy is currently the Principal Structural Engineer at icubed consulting based in Brisbane. Rohan has been designing and overseeing construction in the residential, commercial, infrastructure and industrial building industries for the last 10 years. For the past 7 years, he has focused his attention on the design of FRP pedestrian, road, wharf and jetty infrastructure around Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada, the USA, Fiji and the UAE. Rohan has also co-authored a paper on the world’s first composite FRP and concrete wharf at Pinkenba, Brisbane for the International Federation for Structural Concrete.
Rowan Hsu
Principal Structural Engineer
Natalie Cook
Structural Engineer
As part of the new Sydney Metro Southwest Project, in order to construct the Martin Place shaft in the middle of Sydney’s CBD, a temporary pedestrian bridge was required to connect the pedestrians at ground level between the bank and adjacent excavation. Transport for New South Wales required that the existing surface and underground walkway be accessible during the construction to minimise disruption to the pedestrian access to the adjacent underground train station and street-level foot traffic.
The installation of the temporary pedestrian bridge was required to be sequenced with the demolition of existing building and subsequent shaft excavation. Stringent shutdown control within the CBD meant that the erection of the super structure was scheduled over a single weekend. Access during erection was limited only to the ends of the bridge resulting in restricted cranage capacity and sequencing.
To achieve these requirements, the design adopted a double decker steel truss bridge connected in segments.The design development of this bridge required close coordination with the wider project team to meet the multitude of challenges presented.
The substructures were partially constructed within the existing basement prior to demolition. Interfacing details were extensively investigated and surveyed to ensure proper fitting during the erection. 
Rowan Hsu is a Principal structural engineer for BG&E based in Sydney, Australia. He has over 15 years’ experience as a structural engineer across a broad range of sectors including infrastructure, industrial and buildings in Australia.
Natalie Cook is a structural engineer in Arcadis’ Civil infrastructure team. She was a part of the joint venture team delivering the design of the new Sydney Metro Southwest Project where she delivered three shaft excavation designs and design of the temporary pedestrian bridge at Martin Place Metro station.
Rupert Noronha - 1
Section Engineer
Morgan Sindall
Vines Creek Road Bridges is a Transport for Main Roads (TMR) demolition and replacement scheme in Mackay. It comprises two 4 span prestressed concrete deck unit bridges spanning over Vines Creek. Being a gateway for agriculture and manufacturing, the new bridges have a higher mass limit and were built higher than the existing ones to increase flood immunity to the area.
This presentation covers the full construction sequence of the two road bridges with a key focus on cast-in-situ piling, driven precast piling, cast-in situ abutments and precast deck erection including the transverse stressing operation.
Rupert Noronha is a chartered structural engineer who graduated from Queensland University of Technology with first class honours. He completed 5 years in design before transitioning into construction where he now works in delivery roles for principal contractors. Rupert has moved around extensively to enhance career opportunities including moving from Brisbane to Sydney at 21 and a FIFO role in Mackay in 2017. He has most recently been living and working in the UK as a section engineer for Morgan Sindall on the Werrington Grade Separation Project.
Rupert Noronha - 2
Section Engineer
Morgan Sindall
Stamford Rail Underbridge is a single span concrete integral bridge with ballasted track form required as part of the Werrington Grade Separation Project in the UK. It was constructed in order to facilitate plant and operative access into the wideway between the existing Stamford Lines and proposed Stamford slewed lines. The bridge consists of precast deck beams with reinforced concrete abutments and deck infill.
This presentation covers the full construction sequence of the rail underbridge from the contractor's perspective.
Rupert Noronha is a chartered structural engineer who graduated from Queensland University of Technology with first class honours. He completed 5 years in design before transitioning into construction where he now works in delivery roles for principal contractors. Rupert has moved around extensively to enhance career opportunities including moving from Brisbane to Sydney at 21 and a FIFO role in Mackay in 2017. He has most recently been living and working in the UK as a section engineer for Morgan Sindall on the Werrington Grade Separation Project.
Rupert Noronha - 3
Section Engineer
Morgan Sindall
Cock Lane Footbridge is a 50m single span steel truss pedestrian bridge required as part of the Werrington Grade Separation Project in the UK.
The new bridge was constructed in order to span over the additional rail lines built as part of the project.
This presentation covers the full construction sequence of the new footbridge including demolition of the existing bridge and temporary works. Construction of the new footbridge was in a highly constrained environment requiring detailed planning around overhead rail lines, 132kV power lines and a proposed new cast-in-situ concrete culvert.
Rupert Noronha is a chartered structural engineer who graduated from Queensland University of Technology with first class honours. He completed 5 years in design before transitioning into construction where he now works in delivery roles for principal contractors. Rupert has moved around extensively to enhance career opportunities including moving from Brisbane to Sydney at 21 and a FIFO role in Mackay in 2017. He has most recently been living and working in the UK as a section engineer for Morgan Sindall on the Werrington Grade Separation Project.
Sam Mathankar
Asset Manager Structures
Main Roads Western Australia
Arash Groban
Principal Bridge Engineer
Dr Liam Holloway
Managing Director
MEnD Consulting
Bridge 1011 in Perth, Western Australia, is one of the few bridges with half joints in the state that utilise a half joint and is considered an strategic asset for Main Roads Western Australia (MRWA).
Designed and built in the late 1960’s, Bridge 1011 carries high traffic volumes from the Mitchell Freeway, one of the key arterial roadways in Perth, with half joints supporting a “drop-in” span over passenger railway line which limits the access to the joints. The bridge comprises post-tensioned concrete I-girders with transverse beams at the ends with half joints to support adjacent spans on bearings. Due to the bifurcation of diverging lanes on the Freeway, the girders in the end deck are not supported along the centroid of the girders of the adjacent span, creating an indirect load path along the half joint support.
The key concerns with these types of joints is that they have no redundancy and are typically hidden from close inspection, meaning that deterioration cannot be effectively monitored, and failure can be sudden.
Whilst there are expansion joint seals located above the joints, these often fail over time and allow seepage through to the half joint and potentially accelerate chloride induced corrosion of the reinforcement at a critical section.
This paper presents the work undertaken to investigate and load rate the half joints on Bridge 1011 which involved Level 3 investigative drilling, coring and testing of the bridge along with strut and tie analysis of the half joints to determine the current load carrying capacity of the bridge.
Sam Mathankar has 22 years’ experience in roads and civil infrastructure Industry which includes asset management, design management, design co-ordination, construction, contract and project management. He has worked for the various Government Transport Authorities, Local Government, international contractors and engineering consultants. Sam has worked and managed teams in projects that planned, designed, built and maintained transport infrastructure in Australia and overseas and has experience in leading multidisciplinary teams from feasibility to construction stages for various new built, re-alignments and widening /upgrade projects.
Liam Holloway’s unique skills and expertise as a materials engineer specialising in durability and corrosion, traverse key infrastructure sectors including marine, mining, defence and energy. Liam completed his PhD in the field of corrosion inhibition and monitoring for reinforced concrete structures at Monash University. Following this he has worked in both the consulting and contracting fields with a focus on asset condition assessment, remediation and maintenance. 
Satyajit Datar
Technical Director, Infrastructure
Zarinne Seow
Structural Engineer
Kanjana Siamphukdee
Bridge Engineer
Buried Corrugated Metal Culverts (BCMCs) have been extensively used in Australia for several years, as an alternative to bridges and reinforced concrete culverts. The main benefit of BCMCs is generally a reduced capital cost; and the main drawback has been a reduced design life due to corrosion of the metal leading to section loss and loss of structural integrity.
Papers in the past have discussed the asset management of the BCMCs, covering topics such as inspection, maintenance and remedial strategies. However, the technical aspects of the engineering analysis in assessing the residual structural capacities of the BCMCs have not been discussed.
This paper provides further commentary on the technical analysis of residual structural capacities and will cover the following matters in relation to the design of BCMCs:
  • Failure mechanisms of axial compression, extreme fibre yield/plastic hinge formation, global buckling, local buckling
  • Comparison of analysis methods given in AS2041.1 and finite element analysis
  • Reinforced concrete lining options of partial and full circumference lining
  • Durability aspects including corrosion rates under wet and dry atmospheric and in-ground conditions
The main case study investigated in this paper is the Morwell River Culverts, which replaced a timber bridge structure in 1982 to support a single-track embankment for the Gippsland Railway Line.
The paper provides invaluable insights and summarises the key issues in the structural analysis of BCMCs. The guidelines presented in this paper can be used to assist engineers in the structural assessment of BCMCs in the future.
Satyajit Datar, BE (Hons), CPEng, RPEQ, FIEAust has been a consulting engineer for 35 years mostly in Australia and New Zealand, with stints in the Middle East, SE Asia, India, USA and Canada. He has worked in several market sectors including residential, commercial and industrial, manufacturing, defence, water, sports and leisure, food and beverage; and for the last few years with Aurecon, has been leading structural teams for transport infrastructure projects in Melbourne.
Zarinne Seow, BE (Hons), is a structural engineer with 5 years experience within the infrastructure, commercial and residential industries. She has worked on several major infrastructure projects in both Victoria and New South Wales, Australia to delivery structural engineering analysis and design for all project stages including detailed design, construction phase services and asset management.
Kanjana Siamphukdee, PhD, BE (Hons), is a structural engineer with four years of experience in the rail industry in Victoria. Prior to joining Aurecon, Kanjana was completing his postgraduate research on durability of marine concrete structures. He was also a sessional academic staff, tutoring undergraduate structural engineering subjects at the Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
Scott Henderson
Structural Engineer
Bridge engineers and asset owners frequently undertake condition assessments of bridges and culverts. The condition assessment inspections undertaken in the field are usually time constrained due to the infrequent availability of road closures or railway possessions. The inspectors undertaking the work typically require: pen and paper to record observations; a handheld GPS to record locations; a camera; and a range of documents for reference. Consequently, there is a challenge as to how to record the information in the field in a safe, efficient and repeatable manner that saves time and increases data quality.
Leveraging new advancements in technology, Jacobs has developed a tablet-based software called jForms as its standard solution for streamlining data capture in the field. jForms is a customisable electronic tool that allows data to be recorded quickly and easily in the field using predefined forms and dropdown lists. The information collected is synchronised to a cloud-based SQL database in real time. All information collected using jForms can be fully integrated into an asset’s building information model (BIM); or can automatically be output into reports configured to any specification.
This paper presents two case studies where jForms has been used successfully in Australia to undertake numerous bridge condition assessments.
Scott Henderson is a Structural Engineer for Jacobs’ Sydney office. Scott has over 8 years’ experience in the design of bridge structures, underground structures, industrial structures and maritime structures. Scott has worked on a range of bridge projects including: detailed designs for widening and strengthening bridges; load ratings and inspections.
Stephen Richards
Contracts and Client Relations Manager,
Wood Research and Development
The Sugarloaf Road Bridge at Axedale in Central Victoria is a historic log girder log pile bridge which was originally constructed in 1874. The bridge is significant to the heritage of the Axedale district and was saved from demolition in 1993 following a campaign by the district residents to restore and maintain the bridge at that time.
Public tenders were called in early 2019 to upgrade the bridge including the replacement of 10 girders, 10 corbels and 11 piles, the wrapping of 10 piles and the replacement of the deck. Timber Restoration Systems (TRS) were awarded the tender and site works commenced in June. In accordance with the historical significance of the structure, the design for the upgrade of the bridge included some unique historical features.
With so many elements to be repaired or renewed, the upgrade design did take the opportunity to improve some of the connection details but not all of these were updated. This paper aims to showcase the connection details in this project and how they were implemented and how they benefitted the future longevity of the structure resulting from the bridge upgrade investment. The resulting connection details are compared to modern timber bridge construction and repair detailing to demonstrate to the reader the practicality of applying the modern methods.
TRS client recognised their experience in timber bridge construction and repairs and was able to make some changes to the upgrade design throughout the project subsequent to Wood Research and Development (WRD) (consultant to TRS) recommendations.
Stephen Richards completed a Bachelor of Engineering (civil) at the former Ballarat College of Advanced Education (now Federation University). He worked in Local Government for 24 years with 9 years in civil project design and delivery and 15 years in the management of municipal works, construction, special projects and asset management. For the last 4 years of this period, he also undertook the role of MERO under the Victorian emergency management act. He joined Timber Restoration Systems in 2010 as Operations Manager and moved to Wood Research and Development in 2015 as Contracts & Client Manager. He has represented both companies in the delivery of numerous contracts. most recently undertook the Site Management role for TRS at the Nappan Marsh Bridge Replacement project in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Dr Stephen Salim
Technical Director – Bridges and Civil Structures
Awais Chaudry
Associate Civil Structural Engineer
The Great Ocean Road (GOR) is a heritage listed, secondary state arterial road, which serves as one of Victoria’s principal tourist routes. The GOR extends along the south-western coast line from Torquay to Allansford serving as the primary route for a number of coastal townships and tourist attractions.
The Australian and Victorian Government have committed $100M to the Great Ocean Road upgrade project towards asset renewals throughout the route. These include geotechnical strengthening, pavement rehabilitation, road safety barriers, bridge strengthening and bridge upgrades. Moggs Creek Bridge Replacement forms part of the programme of works.
The existing Moggs Creek Bridge is currently nearing the end of the design life which requires replacement. The proposed structure is a single span integral bridge comprising precast concrete girders acting compositely with a cast insitu deck slab supported on piled capping beams.
This paper discusses the design and construction of the replacement bridge with the use of precast elements including challenges faced with detailing with the objective of reducing overall construction programme and minimising disruption to the travelling public. A temporary bailey bridge is also installed adjacent to the existing bridge to allow one-way traffic during construction.
Stephen Salim is a Chartered Civil Engineer and Fellow of the Institution of Civil Engineers. He is also a Chartered Professional Engineer and Fellow of Engineers Australia. He has solid diversified experience in the design and assessment of significant structures for large infrastructure projects and has engineered over 200 Bridges & Civil Structures in the UK, Australia, Malaysia, Dubai, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Azerbaijan. He was involved in the calibration work of Eurocode 2 in which some of the proposals are already adopted in the UK National Annex for EN 1992. He is also a joint author of the Concise Eurocode 2 for Bridges published by the Concrete Centre and he prepares an integra bridge design example to Eurocodes on behalf of the Concrete Bridge Development Group. He has produced several technical publications as well as presented papers at international conferences. He is conversant with international codes of practices including British Standards, Eurocodes. AS 5100 and AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. 
Awais Chaudry is a structural engineer with 19 years experience working on various buildings, bridges, culverts and earth retaining structure projects. Awais is an expert in analysis & design of steel and concrete structures independently along with their foundations. He is capable of preparing steel structure erection schemes for large and complex construction. He has a proven track record of executing design in construction through work planning, resources planning, resolution of technical issues, and control of work through effective monitoring system. Good at reviewing specifications, estimates and proposals from design & technical point of view, he has extended skill in preparing BOQs & tender documents consistent with design. 
Stephen Wood
Bridge and Structures Engineer
Port Macquarie - Hastings Council
The Comboyne Plateau is a highly fertile agricultural area of significance in the Port Macquarie-Hastings Local Government Area. The area was discovered in the late 1800’s and settled and developed producing quality hardwood timbers, dairy and other crops. Access for sending produce to market was extremely difficult due to the steep and forested terrain. Poor quality roads to the Camden Haven and the Manning Valley areas were the only option until Comboyne Road was constructed following the First World War in 1919. This allowed produce to reach the port of Macquarie.
Comboyne Road was upgraded progressively to cater for higher productivity vehicles throughout the 20th century including construction of three major timber girder bridges over Harty’s Creek, Bulli Creek and Hyndman’s Creek in the 1950’s. This route is now a regional road servicing an important avocado industry exporting over 500,000 crates per annum, and a dairy industry exporting over 17 million litres per annum. The existing timber bridges were in poor condition unable to continue to service the demands of the industry.
 Bulli Creek Bridge
In 2016, Port Macquarie Hastings Council progressed with a project to replace the remaining timber bridges on this regional road opening the Comboyne Plateau up for higher-productivity vehicles. The timber bridge replacements were designed to be identical in form, and to be constructed online since side-tracks and bypass routes for not feasible for heavy vehicles due to the difficult terrain. 10-day road shut-downs were utilised for each bridge, such that impacts on the community and industry were minimised, and costs and time reduced associated with any property acquisition and approach reconstruction.
In late 2018 the last of the remaining timber bridges on Comboyne Road, Harty’s Bridge, was successfully replaced completing this ambitious project.
Stephen Wood has over 18 years of experience as a Bridge and Structural Engineer. He has extensive experience in scheming and options development for small, medium and complex structures and bridges related to transport infrastructure including major highway upgrades, rail duplications, road overpasses, mine infrastructure projects and public cycleway facilities. He also has significant experience relating to the detailed design and documentation of bridge structures of various forms, and for various clients including state government, local councils, mine operators and private developers. In his role as Bridge and Structures Engineer for Port Macquarie-Hastings Council, Stephen has managed a large network of bridge assets including condition inspection, structural assessment, review and approval of heavy vehicle load permits, scoping and managing rehabilitation, renewal and replacement of bridges, and asset valuation and prioritisation.
Sylvia Korlos
Structural Engineer
Louis Walsh
Technical Director - Civil Infrastructure
Lovers Walk Pedestrian Bridge is a single span concrete integral bridge required as part of the Melbourne Metro Tunnel development works at South Yarra in Victoria, Australia.
The pedestrian walkway connects one of Melbourne’s busiest train stations, South Yarra Station to the retail and entertainment district on Chapel St. Running parallel to the Frankston-Dandenong rail line, the 14.3 m spanning bridge is located between the rail corridor embankments and the adjacent residential properties, thus restricting the use of conventional bored pile or continuous auger piling rig to be used. This unique location formed the rationale for the use of micro piles to support the eastern abutment of the bridge, whilst the western abutment was formed from a cantilevered extension of a recently constructed retaining wall.
This paper will detail the key design considerations of this project, particularly focusing on the constraints of bridge design and construction within the rail corridor.
Sylvia Korlos is a structural engineer in AECOM’s Civil Infrastructure team. She has been a part of the Rail Infrastructure Alliance team, working on the design and delivery of two pedestrian bridges as well as other miscellaneous structures along the Melbourne rail network.
Louis Walsh is a Technical Director in AECOM’s Civil Infrastructure business line. He is responsible for the successful delivery of infrastructure projects and technical excellence in bridge and structural engineering. Louis has worked in engineering consultancy across the world including in Europe, the Middle East, and South-East Asia. His 35 years’ experience includes the preparation of feasibility studies, detailed engineering design and site supervision of major civil engineering structures.
Tanmay Vegad
Structural Engineer
Matt Proitsis
Principal Structural Engineer
Hatch, in Joint Venture with Pitt&Sherry (HPSJV), was engaged to deliver the civil and structural design of four out of the eight capital works packages forming part of the $1.8B Western Roads Upgrade Project in Melbourne, Victoria. Two of these packages were delivered for Winslow Infrastructure and included two new road bridges, a bridge widening, two new SUP bridges in addition to a range of barriers, large culverts and retaining walls.
This paper will highlight some of the key challenges encountered during the design and construction of various bridges with a focus on the innovative and practical design solutions used to resolve them. This will include discussion of the design of new bridge barriers and upgrades of existing barriers for considerably higher barrier loads to AS5100:2017, design and construction considerations for bridge widenings, as well as covering how designs were adapted to align with optimal construction sequencing; minimise temporary works; and improve construction safety provisions.
The paper will also discuss some implications of more stringent requirements for shared user path handrail designs and provisions for bridge bearing restraints.
Tanmay Vegad is a Structural Engineer with over six years of experience in many facets of structural engineering, from design phase to delivery of structural design packages, inspections and conducting investigations on a multitude of mid to large scale projects across Australia. He has worked on bridge designs in several major projects across Australia including Mernda Rail Extension Project, Western Roads Upgrade Project and West Gate Tunnel Project (Temporary Works).
Matt Proitsis is a Principal Structural Engineer based in Hatch’s Melbourne office. He has over eighteen years of experience on road bridges, rail bridges, pedestrian bridges, cut-and-cover tunnels, deep shafts/major retention systems and temporary works design. He has extensive technical experience in Victorian based transport infrastructure projects, and has worked on projects elsewhere in Australia, Canada, the USA and the UK. Matt was the Structures Design Lead for of HPSJV’s four capital works projects forming part of the Western Roads Upgrade project and was intimately involved in the technical design development of all structures and co-ordination with construction requirements.
Tim Chappell
Senior Engineer
Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service
The Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service (PWS) manages a large network of remote roads and walking tracks with associated structures including bridges, viewing platforms, elevated walkways and safety barriers. Due to the often difficult access for inspectors and maintenance crews, the ongoing management of these structures presents particular challenges that are rarely encountered in a more urban setting.
In response to these difficulties, the PWS has developed an approach to prioritising inspections and maintenance that is substantially different to methods commonly adopted by other road management authorities and local governments.
This paper presents a summary of the risk-based asset management system developed by PWS, including some examples of the system being used in practice.
Tim Chappell is Senior Engineer with Parks & Wildlife Service Tasmania, a position he has held since 2008. With a strong interest in the natural environment and outdoor recreation he enjoys the challenge of managing infrastructure in some of the most remote and wild places in Australia. Tim has a background in structural design and, prior to joining the PWS, worked mostly in the renewable energy sector (hydro and wind generation).
Tim Shaw
Structural Engineer - Bridges
Daniel Anstice
Technical Director – Materials Technology
Port Macquarie-Hastings Council identified that the piers of the Dunbogan Bridge, located approximately 30km south of Port Macquarie, had undergone significant corrosion and deterioration which affected the durability and structural integrity of the piers. The existing Dunbogan Bridge was constructed in 1967 and provides a vital link for the community, particularly for the haulage industry.
In late 2018, GHD was commissioned to complete the detailed design of the pier rehabilitation, including a materials condition assessment and structural design for strengthening for flood events. This bridge has served the community well for many decades and the intention of the proposed rehabilitation works was to prolong the service life of the bridge.
Given the extent of corrosion present in the piers and the potential for future macrocell corrosion being initiated on single columns between discrete areas of atmospherically exposed concrete (high oxygen availability) and submerged concrete (low oxygen/high chloride availability), it was determined that the piers required jacketing with grout infill. The jacket design extended from the river bed to the underside of the headstock and incorporated a sacrificial anode cathodic protection system. The addition of the jackets with grout infill stiffened the already slender piers which resulted in the existing piers attracting more loads.
This paper describes how GHD worked collaboratively with PMHC to undertake an in depth structural assessment of the entire bridge, including a detailed assessment of the construction staging and defects in the existing piers, in order to provide an optimised jacket design that met the durability and strength requirements, as well as meeting the broader project objectives from PMHC.
Tim Shaw is a structural engineer in GHD’s bridge team and is responsible for the design and analysis of bridge and infrastructure related structures. He has varied experience across bridge, road, rail, dam, tunnel and coastal engineering projects, but primarily focusses on structural engineering. Tim has completed many road and rail bridge design projects, including the structural assessment and specification of strengthening works of existing complex bridge structures.
Daniel Anstice is a Technical Director with over 20 years’ experience in the inspection, investigation, analysis and proposal/specification of repair options for reinforced and post-tensioned concrete, steel, timber and masonry structures; durability assessment and service life prediction for new and existing structures; structure whole life costing; and the development of optimum inspection and maintenance strategies.
Dr Torill Pape
Technical Director Transport,
Susie Seeto
Structural Engineer
High maintenance costs, potentially limited load capacities, geometric constraints and safety concerns are just some of the issues associated with timber bridges. As such, the Department of Transport and Main Roads North Coast District identified a need to progressively replace timber bridges with more durable structures to promote the ongoing functionality of the road network.
North Coast District manages thirty-four timber bridges within its boundaries.
An assessment technique was developed that provided prioritisation recommendations for replacing these timber bridges using a Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA). Categories included in the MCA included bridge performance, network operation, safety, functionality, and maintenance. An emphasis was placed on business case requirements to support investment in timber bridge replacement. Based on the results of the MCA, the timber bridges were sorted into priority order and assigned recommended replacement timeframes.
Dr Torill Pape is a Technical Director with the Bridges team in AECOM. She has over 18 years’ experience as a civil/structural engineer across a broad number of sectors, including consulting, construction, public service and academia. Torill currently leads the AECOM Bridge Structures Team.
Susie Seeto is a Structural Engineer in AECOM’s Bridge Structures Team. Susie has been involved in projects from the concept stage, through to detailed design and more recently involved in the ongoing management of assets. Through her work with existing assets, Susie has utilised the principles outlined in ISO 13822 that require assessment results of existing structures to be plausible and reflect the structures in-service behaviour.