32nd Annual Hands-On Relay School
Distribution Protection Overview Lecture
      Presentation      Paper      Handout
Dana Hildebrand and Kevin Damron, Avista, Spokane, WA
This lecture will review fundamental principles of distribution system protection, including IEEE device designations, fault current calculations, coordination of overcurrent protection, and reclosing schemes.

Transmission Protection Overview Lecture
Normann Fischer, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Pullman, WA
This lecture will review fundamental principles of transmission line protection.  Concepts of distance protection, directional overcurrent, line differential, and pilot protection schemes will be discussed.

Generation Protection Overview Lecture
Rogerio Scharlach, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc, Pullman, WA
This lecture will review fundamental principles of generation protection theory and application with a focus on industry standards and best practices.

Brent Carper, Relay Application Innovation
Introduction to CT Basics and Testing
Louis Wright, Bonneville Power Administration
Jeff Marsh, Avista Utilities
Scott Cooper, OMICRON electronics

Introduction to Troubleshooting
Paul Luther, Puget Sound Energy


The Salem Smart Power System
Kevin Whitener, Portland General Electric
The Integration of a 5MW battery storage system into a utility feeder.  the protection system will be described as well as the control modes of operation in backing up renewable generation.
MetCalf Substation
Ken Wills, Pacific Gas & Electric
MetCalf Substation was attacked by vandals in April 2013 who knocked out several transformer banks.  This presentation will review the damage, the recovery process, and the measures that PG&E has undertaken to harden the substation.
The Hands-On Relay School offers twelve lectures on a wide range of topics relevant to the trade.  Each lecture is one hour long and given a total of three times.  Students can attend up to six lectures of their choosing.

Bus Protection
Mike Kockott, ABB Inc
This lecture will cover various types of bus protection relaying, with particular emphasis on the influence of current transformer performance.  Low, medium, and high impedance systems will be discussed.  The requirements for setting the relays in a bus differential scheme will be described.

CIP-NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection
John Lim, Lim Consulting LLC
What is CIP and how does it impact today's relay technician?  A look at the current CIP requirements and the changes coming with version 5 as they will change how technicians interact with protective relays.

Digital Logic for Protection and Control
Brent Carper, Relay Application Innovation
An introduction to digital logic and symbols used for protective relaying. The class will compare traditional hardwired schematic logic to software based programmed logic with hands-on classroom exercises converting between the two.

End-to-End Testing
Chris Werstiuk, Valence Electrical Training Services
End-to-end testing is considered the ultimate dynamic test for any protective relay scheme using communications assisted tripping and can seem like a daunting task.  This lecture will walk through a process for a typical end-to-end test to demystify the test.

Fault Analysis for Relay Technicians
Ken Workman, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories
Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find the root cause. This session provides an outline of the event analysis process, several real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Math for Relay Technicians
Charlene Reyes, Puget Sound Energy
This lecture will cover basic math used by relay technicians.  The session will provide a quick review of unit analysis/conversions, trigonometry, rectangular/polar coordinate math, and common electrical equations.  Students will leave with the understanding of how basic math applies to real life examples used in everyday relay settings and testing.

Personal Protective Bonding and Grounding
Harvey Haven, Bonneville Power Administration Consultant
This lecture stresses the importance of safety while in an electrical environment.  Sources of accidental energization and protections against those sources are discussed.  Methods of establishing and maintaining an equipotential zone (EPZ) in the immediate work area are explained.

Phasor Diagrams
Ron Alexander, Bonneville Power Administration
Phasors are the universal language of system protection technicians and engineers. This lecture emphasizes the need for a basic knowledge of phasor diagrams and their use in understanding the power system. Topics include load flow phasor analysis, fault phasor analysis, and using Phasors to determine the phase angle across delta-wye transformers banks.

Relay Communications Basics
Mike O'Neal, RFL Electronics
Discussion on different types of communication methods used in relaying applications.  Information includes synchronous, asynchronous, (RS232), teleprotection (audio/digital), power line carrier, and fiber optic (C37.94) communications, with examples of how to determine what type of communications is being used on any specific application, and how relay loopback testing helps determine if the relay is functional or if a communication problem exists.

Symmetrical Components 1
Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Basic principles of symmetrical components with explanation of phasors, per unit system, and symmetrical component equations using sequence networks. Suggested prerequisite for Symmetrical Component 2 class

Symmetrical Components 2
Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Analysis of power system elements with symmetrical components sequence network and network connections for each power system fault types. Samples of protective relay applications using symmetrical component method. Suggest attending Symmetrical Components 1 lecture as a prerequisite.

Transformer Auxiliary Protective Devices
Brent Carper, Relay Application Innovation
Other devices are often used in conjunction with protective relays to provide protection against unconventional transformer faults.  This lecture will discuss the application of sudden pressure relays (rapid pressure rise relays), Buccholz relays, low oil tripping schemes, and temperature tripping considerations including the differences between hot-spot temperature, winding temperature, simulated winding temperature, and oil temperature tripping schemes.  Incipient fault detection by online dissolved gas and moisture monitoring and online bushing diagnostic devices will also be discussed.


An Introduction to Protection
Daniel Ransom, Doble Engineering
Power systems require adequate protection from faults and abnormal operating conditions.  Protective relays provide the means to keep power flowing and to safeguard valuable assets (lines, transformers, etc.).  Relays do this by monitoring power-system conditions and initiating control actions (tripping, reclosing, load shedding, etc.).  The industry is changing and today protection and today protection is more complex.  A thorough understanding of the basics builds a good foundation for applying protection schemes in this complex world.

This presentation covers the following (with hands-on exercises): The rules of protection; why we need protection; zones of protection and reach; reliability, dependability, and security; radial and looped (networked systems); fundamental quantities and the PQ Power Toy; three-phase power; phasors and polarity; per unit; device numbers; and CTs, PTs and CCVTs. 

Wind Energy
Roy Moxley, Siemens
This discussion will provide information on wind generation and how it impacts the grid and protection in particular.  An overview of machine types and their performance will be provided.  Connections to the grid and problems encountered will be presented.  Protection solutions will be presented and future developments discussed.

Distribution Faults and Event Analysis
Randy Spacek, Avista Utilities
A relay response to a fault is only as good as its application and settings.  The capability to perform an analysis utilizing multiple sources of data and tools can provide insight into whether the relay response is correct.  The lecture will use various recorded occurrences to demonstrate how to investigate, analyze, and evaluate an event.  Mystery events will be presented for the technician to solve.

Arc Flash   
Greg Smelich, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc
This presentation covers the following: understanding arc flash hazards; arc flash hazard analysis methods; arc flash warning labels; mitigation methods for arc flash; arc flash detection systems; and testing arc flash detection systems.

Distributed Generation Operations and Protection
Wayne Hartmann, Beckwith Electric Company Inc
This session provides solid background on distributed generation (DG) from multiple aspects: industry history, types, operational sequences, benefits to utilities and owners, control, example guidelines, IEEE 1547 and point-of-common coupling (PCC) interface to culminate and focus on protection aspects at the PCC as well as impact on distribution protection.  Lab sessions include examination of documentation for a DG installation to culminate on typical protection settings.  Various relays will be used to accomplish the protection mission, settings made on the relays, and impact of settings discussed.

Please note: Includes hands-on exercises requiring students to bring their own laptop PC, with administrative rights.