31st Annual Hands-On Relay School
Distribution Protection Overview Lecture
         Paper      Presentation      Handout
Mike Diedesch and Kevin Damron, Avista, Spokane, WA
This lecture will review fundamental principles of distribution system protection, including IEEE device designations, fault current calculations, coordination of overcurrent protection, and reclosing schemes.

Transmission Protection Overview Lecture
Normann Fischer, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Pullman, WA
This lecture will review fundamental principles of transmission line protection.  Concepts of distance protection, directional overcurrent, line differential, and pilot protection schemes will be discussed.

Generation Protection Overview Lecture
Chuck Mozina, Beckwith Electric, Fargo, FL
This lecture will review fundamental principles of generation protection theory and application with a focus on industry standards and best practices.

Brent Carper, Relay Application Innovation
Steve Laslo, Bonneville Power Administration
Jeff Marsh, Avista Utilities
Scott Cooper, Manta Test Systems

Introduction to Troubleshooting
Paul Luther, Puget Sound Energy


Thanksgiving 2012 at Thermalito Powerplant
Derek Stewart, Relay Application Innovation 
On Thanksgiving Day, November 22, 2012, the California Department of Water Recourse’s (DWR) Thermalito Powerplant experienced a fire that likely began with a control wiring electrical fault that spread upward into the control room on the next floor. The fire caused catastrophic damage to the facility that will take years to recover from. This presentation will discuss the fire, the forensic investigation and suspected root causes, and a project that was undertaken to study arcing faults in DC control wiring.
Integration of Wind Resources into the BPA Grid
Dmitry Kosterev, Bonneville Power Administration
Wind Power is projected to double over the next few years in the Pacific Northwest if all the planned projects are built.  This is a discussion on the technical problems that BPA and Project Owners have to solve for both present and planned alternative energy generators.
The Hands-On Relay School offers twelve lectures on a wide range of topics relevant to the trade.  Each lecture is one hour long and given a total of three times.  Students can attend up to six lectures of their choosing.

A Guide to Digital Fault Recording Event Analysis
René Midence, ERLPhase Power Technologies
Proper interpretation of fault and disturbance data is critical for the reliability and continuous operation of the power system. A correct interpretation gives you valuable insight into the conditions and performance of various power system protective equipment. Analyzing records is not an intuitive process and requires system protection knowledge and experience. Having an understanding of the fundamental guidelines for the event analysis process is imperative for new power engineers to properly evaluate faults. As senior power engineers retire, knowledge of how to decipher fault records could be lost with them. This lecture addresses aspects of power system fault analysis and provides the new event analyst with a basic foundation of the requirements and steps to analyze and interpret fault disturbances.

Digital Logic for Protection and Control
Brent Carper, Relay Application Innovation
An introduction to digital logic and symbols used for protective relaying. The class will compare traditional hardwired schematic logic to software based programmed logic with hands-on classroom exercises converting between the two.

Fault Analysis for Relay Technicians
Ken Workman, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories
Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find the root cause. This session provides an outline of the event analysis process, several real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Fault Location
Erik Schellenberg, Idaho Power Company
The presentation will primarily cover the most common single-ended, impedance based fault locating algorithms used in relays, and their sources of error and limitations, starting with simple impedance and simple reactance and then moving to Takagi and modified Takagi techniques. It will also introduce some of the more common double ended methods, such as, travelling wave and double-ended negative sequence.

Impact of Distributed Generation on Distribution Systems
         Presentation      Tutorial      Green Power
Chuck Mozina, Beckwith Electric
A significant amount of Distributed Generation (DG) is being installed on distribution systems in many parts of the United States and Canada. Much of it is green power sources such as solar and wind from non-conventional generators using inverter based technologies. DGs operate in parallel with utility distribution feeders. Distribution circuits are designed to supply radial loads. Therefore, the introduction of DG can mean: redistribution of fault and load currents on the feeder circuits, overvoltage and ferroresonance, plus a possible loss of protection system coordination—all of which can result in customer outages and/or distribution system equipment damage. This presentation will discuss these specific reliability issues in interconnecting DGs (both conventional and inverter based) to utility systems and solutions to mitigate the above cited issues.

Phasor Diagrams
Ron Alexander, Bonneville Power Administration
Phasors are the universal language of system protection technicians and engineers. This lecture emphasizes the need for a basic knowledge of phasor diagrams and their use in understanding the power system. Topics include load flow phasor analysis, fault phasor analysis, and using Phasors to determine the phase angle across delta-wye transformers banks.

Relay Communications Basics
Kevin Leech, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories
This lecture will cover the basics of communications. Topics covered will include: Serial Communications, Ethernet, Fiber Optic, SCADA protocols, Peer-to-Peer protocols, and Communications Architectures.

Substation Commissioning 1&2
         Presentation      Syllabus      Power Transformer
         Distribution Doc         Distribution Slides
Greg Butler, Bonneville Power Administration
An overview of typical testing encountered during substation commissioning activities including test criteria, procedures and techniques, documentation, wiring, and safety considerations. Common power system components include transformers, power circuit breakers, reactive equipment, PTs and CTs.

Symmetrical Components 1
Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Basic principles of symmetrical components with explanation of phasors, per unit system, and symmetrical component equations using sequence networks. Suggested prerequisite for Symmetrical Component 2 class

Symmetrical Components 2
Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Analysis of power system elements with symmetrical components sequence network and network connections for each power system fault types. Samples of protective relay applications using symmetrical component method. Suggest attending Symmetrical Components 1 lecture as a prerequisite.

Transformer Protection
Scott Cooper, Manta Test Systems
An overview of power transformer protection practices. Emphasis is placed on solutions to the challenges to effective protection including transformation ratio, transformer connection, current transformer connections, zero sequence current elimination, inrush, and over excitation. Analysis of differential relay operation for various types of faults and fault locations is discussed.



Transmission Line Protection
Alex Polikoff, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories
Covers transmission level line protection elements and high speed communication aided tripping schemes. This includes step distance, overcurrent, line current differential, and other more advanced protection elements (out of step blocking/tripping, single pole tripping, etc…).

Advanced Transformer Protection
Joe Xanvier, ABB
Transformers are one of the most costly pieces of equipment on the electrical grid so protecting them is critical. This presentation will cover transformer theory as well as how larger transmission level transformers are protected.

Remedial Action and Transfer Trip Schemes
Brant Heap, Salt River Project
Remedial Action Schemes, otherwise known as Special Protection Schemes (SPS), are becoming more common among utilities. This presentation will discuss why these schemes are necessary, cover the different types of RAS schemes, and discuss design criteria to help understand these sometimes complicated systems.

Phasor Measurement Units 
Anurag Srivastava, Washington State University
An introductory lecture of what a Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) is and how they are implemented to gather and synchronize AC information over large areas.

Series Capacitors
Mike Hulse, Bonneville Power Administration
What are Series capacitors and why do we use them in electrical transmission systems? This lecture covers the theory of how these devices work, the benefits, and the systems/schemes employed to protect them.

End to End Testing 
David Beach, Portland General Electric
Covers testing of line relays that employ communication aided tripping schemes. The lecture includes a hands on lab that simulates testing of communication aided tripping schemes between two substations.

Please note: Includes hands-on exercises requiring students to bring their own laptop PC, with administrative rights.