10th Australian Small Bridges Conference 2021
 
 
Click HERE to see the Speaking Program 
 
Our accepted abstracts and all co-authors are shown below:
  
 
Accepted Abstracts to date are:
Susie Seeto
Structural Engineer
AECOM
Sally Farquhar
Senior Structural Engineer
AECOM 
PRIORITISATION STRATEGY FOR TIMBER BRIDGE REPLACEMENTS
PRESENTATION
 
High maintenance costs, potentially limited load capacities, geometric constraints and safety concerns are just some of the issues associated with timber bridges. As such, the Department of Transport and Main Roads North Coast District identified a need to progressively replace timber bridges with more durable structures to promote the ongoing functionality of the road network.
 
North Coast District manages thirty-four timber bridges within its boundaries.
 
An assessment technique was developed that provided prioritisation recommendations for replacing these timber bridges using a Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA). Categories included in the MCA included bridge performance, network operation, safety, functionality, and maintenance. An emphasis was placed on business case requirements to support investment in timber bridge replacement. Based on the results of the MCA, the timber bridges were sorted into priority order and assigned recommended replacement timeframes.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Susie Seeto is a Structural Engineer in AECOM’s Bridge Structures Team. Susie has been involved in projects from the concept stage, through to detailed design and more recently involved in the ongoing management of assets. Through her work with existing assets, Susie has utilised the principles outlined in ISO 13822 that require assessment results of existing structures to be plausible and reflect the structures in-service behaviour.
  
Sally Farquhar is a Senior Structural Engineer in AECOM’s bridge structures team. She has 9 years’ experience as a structural engineer, with capabilities in structural design, asset management, economic analysis and project management. Sally was the Project Manager and a key contributor to the NCD Timber Bridge Replacement Strategy project.
 
Aida Bartels
Structures Lead AHJV - Associate Principal
Arup
Tina O’Connell
Hydraulics Lead AHJV - Principal Engineer
HDR 
HAUGHTON RIVER FLOODPLAIN UPGRADE PROJECT
 
Floods are a fact of life in Far North Queensland. Safety and connectivity of the community during the floods is paramount, and so is the development of reliable yet cost-effective new infrastructure. This case study will discuss the design solutions introduced to replace a series of substandard crossings to effectively remove the flood vulnerability of the Bruce Highway across the Haughton River floodplain, south of Townsville. Arup & HDR Joint Venture (AHJV) delivered the design for the vital upgrade along 14km of the Bruce Highway with exceptional savings of taxpayer dollars, whilst reducing impact upon the environment, and meeting the flooding challenge in this complex floodplain.
 
AHJV reduced the number of bridges from the reference design down from sixteen to just seven, which reduced the original 3km of new bridges to 830 metres.
 
Innovative engineering included the first use of Tubular Steel Piles to meet the Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR) MRTS64, and first TMR project of this scale to utilise the prestressed precast driven piles designed and detailed for earthquake category BDEC2.
 
This TMR project is currently under construction by The Infrastructure Group (TIG), a JV between BMD, Bielby, JF Hull and Albem, with completion expected mid-2021.
 
The paper will cover an overview of the structural solutions on the project, the main focus being 7 bridge sites (4 floodway bridges, 2 overpasses, and Haughton River Bridge), unusual aspects of the pile designs, complimentary 2-D flood modelling for impact assessment at adjacent properties, abutment/pier scour design, and will touch on the use of full BIM and digital innovation to aid both TMR review and TIG construction.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Aida Bartels has over 20 years’ experience in delivering designs and concepts for road, cyclist, and pedestrian bridges. Aida has been a senior project leader on numerous infrastructure projects. She is passionate about shaping outcomes with a lens focused on collaboration and multi-disciplinary and stakeholder integrations, and on thinking outside the square.
 
Tina O’Connell is a 30 year experienced hydraulic engineer, with a high level of competency in hydrology, design of hydraulic structures and flood impact assessment. Tina’s core competency relates to transport corridors. She has extensive experience in linear infrastructure design development, focusing on Queensland roads and rail in the last ten years.
 
 
Satyajit Datar
Technical Director, Infrastructure
Aurecon
Zarinne Seow
Structural Engineer
Aurecon 
Kanjana Siamphukdee
Bridge Engineer
Aurecon
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF BURIED CORRUGATED METAL CULVERTS
 
Buried Corrugated Metal Culverts (BCMCs) have been extensively used in Australia for several years, as an alternative to bridges and reinforced concrete culverts. The main benefit of BCMCs is generally a reduced capital cost; and the main drawback has been a reduced design life due to corrosion of the metal leading to section loss and loss of structural integrity.
 
Papers in the past have discussed the asset management of the BCMCs, covering topics such as inspection, maintenance and remedial strategies. However, the technical aspects of the engineering analysis in assessing the residual structural capacities of the BCMCs have not been discussed.
 
This paper provides further commentary on the technical analysis of residual structural capacities and will cover the following matters in relation to the design of BCMCs:
  • Failure mechanisms of axial compression, extreme fibre yield/plastic hinge formation, global buckling, local buckling
  • Comparison of analysis methods given in AS2041.1 and finite element analysis
  • Reinforced concrete lining options of partial and full circumference lining
  • Durability aspects including corrosion rates under wet and dry atmospheric and in-ground conditions
The main case study investigated in this paper is the Morwell River Culverts, which replaced a timber bridge structure in 1982 to support a single-track embankment for the Gippsland Railway Line.
 
The paper provides invaluable insights and summarises the key issues in the structural analysis of BCMCs. The guidelines presented in this paper can be used to assist engineers in the structural assessment of BCMCs in the future.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Satyajit Datar, BE (Hons), CPEng, RPEQ, FIEAust has been a consulting engineer for 35 years mostly in Australia and New Zealand, with stints in the Middle East, SE Asia, India, USA and Canada. He has worked in several market sectors including residential, commercial and industrial, manufacturing, defence, water, sports and leisure, food and beverage; and for the last few years with Aurecon, has been leading structural teams for transport infrastructure projects in Melbourne.
 
Zarinne Seow, BE (Hons), is a structural engineer with 5 years experience within the infrastructure, commercial and residential industries. She has worked on several major infrastructure projects in both Victoria and New South Wales, Australia to delivery structural engineering analysis and design for all project stages including detailed design, construction phase services and asset management.
 
Kanjana Siamphukdee, PhD, BE (Hons), is a structural engineer with four years of experience in the rail industry in Victoria. Prior to joining Aurecon, Kanjana was completing his postgraduate research on durability of marine concrete structures. He was also a sessional academic staff, tutoring undergraduate structural engineering subjects at the Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
 
 
 
Elijah Holland
Structural Engineer
Aurecon
DEEP SCOUR ANALYSIS AND FLOOD LOADING ON SUBMERGED BRIDGES
 
An existing four span timber bridge, constructed in the 1950’s and located in the Wide Bay Burnett region in south east Queensland, is now considered in poor condition and is required to be replaced.
 
A business case for the bridge replacement was undertaken which determined that the existing bridge shall be replaced with a six span prestressed concrete deck unit bridge.
 
The business case also found that the horizontal and vertical alignment of the roadway would need to be altered to accommodate the new bridge. A flooding and scour analysis completed by Aurecon determined potential design scour depths at piers in excess of 15m for the Q2000 flood event and indicated the potential for a full wash away of the embankment on which the northern abutment sits. As such, flood forces and scour became a significant factor during design.
 
This paper aims to investigate the causes and effects of deep scour and outline the influence of flood loading with respects to AS5100, and their impacts on bridge design. Subsequently, the methods used to mitigate the effects of flooding and scour throughout the bridge replacement design will be examined, in particular; pier design, the separation of load cases into trafficable and non-trafficable scour and provisions for scour protection at abutments.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Elijah Holland is a structural engineer with Aurecon specialising in engineering design, documentation and structural assessment of bridges and other civil infrastructure. He has been involved in a variety of civil infrastructure projects across Queensland and Victoria.
 
 
Marcia Prelog
Associate
Aurecon
THARWA BRIDGE MAINTENANCE – LESSONS LEARNT
Technical Paper shown, but not presented
 
Tharwa Bridge is an impressive example of restoring a historically significant timber bridge for posterity. The renowned Australian engineer Percy Allan designed the original four span timber truss across the Murrumbidgee River, on the southern border of the ACT in 1895. At over 5m above the river, it provides safe, high level access to the local town during flood occurrences.
 
Due to significant deterioration over the years, the bridge was reconstructed between 2008 and 2011 with collaboration from Roads ACT, RMS and Aurecon.
 
This bridge structure is of exceptional national heritage significance due to being one of the oldest surviving Allan trusses in service and the innovative design utilised at the time. It is a key feature of Tharwa’s identity.
  
The restoration employed innovative, modern techniques in timber construction, providing a more sustainable use of timber through increased durability. Now, several years on, we are able to reflect upon and share the key lessons learnt and techniques adopted in the maintenance phase.
 
This paper covers the key design solutions for timber durability and how they have fared over the years, as well as some of the innovative maintenance tasks undertaken.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Marcia Prelog is an Associate within Aurecon who has extensive experience in a variety of bridge structures in Australia and overseas. Her 18 years in the Bridges discipline encompasses design in steel, concrete, composites and timber, working with a range of clients such as RMS, Sydney Trains and Sydney Metro as well as local councils within greater Sydney. Marcia’s current passion is to explore how we can improve the management and longevity of current and future bridges.
 
 
 
Nathan Roberts
Technical Director
Aurecon
Dave Mockett
Associate
Aurecon
Chutiwat Poolsilapa
Bridge Engineer
Aurecon
Miguel Wustemann
Director
KI Studio
OUTCOMES OF A COLLABORATIVE APPROACH - NEWCASTLE INNER CITY BYPASS EARLY WORKS SHARED PATH BRIDGE
Technical Paper shown, but not presented
 
Transport for NSW are currently developing the detailed design for the Rankin Park to Jesmond (RP2J) section of the Newcastle Inner City Bypass (NICB). This is the final link of a western motorway for the City of Newcastle. As an early works package for this project, an existing at grade signalised pedestrian crossing has been replaced with a shared path bridge and ramps. The bridge comprises a steel tied arch main span and concrete ramp and stair approaches. The general arrangement of the bridge has been strongly influenced by underground utilities.

The bridge crosses Newcastle Road, one of the main routes into the Newcastle Central Business District (CBD). This is a busy route which currently accommodates approximately 60,000 vehicles per day. Hence, urban design was considered an important factor in the design resolution of the structure. The asset owner, engineer and urban designer collaborated closely together during the detailed design phase to refine the design and create a new landmark as part of the approach into the city centre. Digital technologies such as 3D modelling and virtual reality were used to help visualise the design and to communicate the proposal to stakeholders. Construction is now nearing completion.

This paper will outline the design of the bridge, focusing on the development of urban design refinements and digital technology employed as part of the delivery.

 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Nathan Roberts is a Technical Director with Aurecon. He is also the Aurecon Newcastle Office Leader. Nathan holds a Bachelor of Civil Engineering with honours and has over 15 years’ experience in the design and construction of bridges and civil infrastructure. This also includes bridge assessment, rehabilitation and maintenance projects such as the ANZAC Bridge Maintenance Upgrade. Nathan's design background is supplemented with construction experience as a temporary works coordinator on large rail infrastructure projects in the UK. Nathan was the Aurecon Project Manager and Design Manager for this project.  

Dave Mockett is an Associate with Aurecon. He is a Chartered Professional Engineer who has 15 years’ experience in the design and construction of bridges in New Zealand, Australia, and Asia. Dave returned to New Zealand in 2019 after 4 years working in Hong Kong and Bangkok. Dave was responsible for leading the Shared Path Bridge structural design. Other notable projects include Auckland City Rail Link, Northconnex, Westconnex, and Moorebank Intermodal Freight. Dave is also a past presenter of the conference.

Chutiwat Poolsilapa is a Bridge Engineer with Aurecon. Chutiwat holds a Bachelor of Civil Engineering with honours and has over 4 years’ experience in bridge analysis, design and construction. Chutiwat has been involved in many aspects of bridge and civil structures design, including concept to completion of bridge designs, load ratings, strengthening of existing structures and proof engineering.

Miguel Wustemann (KI Studio) Miguel has over 32 years of experience as an architect and city and regional planner who specialises in urban design, master planning, and architecture. His multi-disciplinary skills and broad experience on a variety of projects internationally ranging from strategic planning, high rise construction, heritage conservation, transport and urban regeneration provides a thorough understanding of the complex issues regarding urban environments, their interfaces and functional integration. Miguel has worked on numerous large-scale urban development, regeneration and infrastructure projects in Australia, Germany, China and USA. His experience in collaborating with Government authorities on complex multimillion development and transport projects underpins his expertise in helping set new visions for urban environments. He has been practicing in Australia since 2000 as director of Infranet and then KI Studio. Miguel has a strong passion in design and believes: “vibrant urban spaces are rich and layered; engaging designs contribute to this outcome”.

 
 
Dr Stephen Salim - 1
Technical Director – Bridges and Civil Structures
Beca
Awais Chaudry
Associate Civil Structural Engineer
Beca
INTEGRAL BRIDGE DESIGN OF MOGGS CREEK BRIDGE REPLACEMENT
Technical Paper shown, but presented 
 
The Great Ocean Road (GOR) is a heritage listed, secondary state arterial road, which serves as one of Victoria’s principal tourist routes. The GOR extends along the south-western coast line from Torquay to Allansford serving as the primary route for a number of coastal townships and tourist attractions.
 
The Australian and Victorian Government have committed $100M to the Great Ocean Road upgrade project towards asset renewals throughout the route. These include geotechnical strengthening, pavement rehabilitation, road safety barriers, bridge strengthening and bridge upgrades. Moggs Creek Bridge Replacement forms part of the programme of works.
 
The existing Moggs Creek Bridge is currently nearing the end of the design life which requires replacement. The proposed structure is a single span integral bridge comprising precast concrete girders acting compositely with a cast insitu deck slab supported on piled capping beams.
 
This paper discusses the design and construction of the replacement bridge with the use of precast elements including challenges faced with detailing with the objective of reducing overall construction programme and minimising disruption to the travelling public. A temporary bailey bridge is also installed adjacent to the existing bridge to allow one-way traffic during construction.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Stephen Salim is a Chartered Civil Engineer and Fellow of the Institution of Civil Engineers. He is also a Chartered Professional Engineer and Fellow of Engineers Australia. He has solid diversified experience in the design and assessment of significant structures for large infrastructure projects and has engineered over 200 Bridges & Civil Structures in the UK, Australia, Malaysia, Dubai, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Azerbaijan. He was involved in the calibration work of Eurocode 2 in which some of the proposals are already adopted in the UK National Annex for EN 1992. He is also a joint author of the Concise Eurocode 2 for Bridges published by the Concrete Centre and he prepares an integra bridge design example to Eurocodes on behalf of the Concrete Bridge Development Group. He has produced several technical publications as well as presented papers at international conferences. He is conversant with international codes of practices including British Standards, Eurocodes. AS 5100 and AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. 
 
Awais Chaudry is a structural engineer with 19 years experience working on various buildings, bridges, culverts and earth retaining structure projects. Awais is an expert in analysis & design of steel and concrete structures independently along with their foundations. He is capable of preparing steel structure erection schemes for large and complex construction. He has a proven track record of executing design in construction through work planning, resources planning, resolution of technical issues, and control of work through effective monitoring system. Good at reviewing specifications, estimates and proposals from design & technical point of view, he has extended skill in preparing BOQs & tender documents consistent with design. 
 
 
Dr Stephen Salim - 2
Technical Director – Bridges and Civil Structures
Beca
Awais Chaudry
Associate Civil Structural Engineer
Beca
Saathwik Vudayagiri
Bridge Design Engineer
AECOM 
GAP BETWEEN THE PRECAST CULVERT CELLS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE DESIGN OF CULVERT BASE SLAB
Technical Paper shown, but not presented 
 
The design and construction of box culverts has nowadays become very standardized with a precast u-shaped culvert cell / unit placed inverted over a cast insitu base slab covering the culvert footprint. These precast u-shaped cells are available in various sizes with their height ranging from 750mm to 2.4m and their width extending from 750mm to 3m respectively. However, the authors have observed that the gap between the culvert cells, when they are placed side by side along the width of a multicell culvert, is not fixed and varies from 0mm to 25mm with the gap either filled by grout or left unfilled.
 
This paper aims at exploring the effect of gap size and gap filling material on the design of cast insitu culvert base slab. The various gap sizes and infill material behavior will be structurally modelled as individual case using structural analysis software and the resulting culvert insitu slab design actions corresponding to each case will be compared to recommend the most appropriate gap size and infill material that will result in an economical slab design.
 
Awais Chaudry is a structural engineer with 19 years experience working on various buildings, bridges, culverts and earth retaining structure projects. Awais is an expert in analysis & design of steel and concrete structures independently along with their foundations. He is capable of preparing steel structure erection schemes for large and complex construction. He has a proven track record of executing design in construction through work planning, resources planning, resolution of technical issues, and control of work through effective monitoring system. Good at reviewing specifications, estimates and proposals from design & technical point of view, he has extended skill in preparing BOQs & tender documents consistent with design. 
 
Saathwik Vudayagiri is a Bridge Design Engineer with AECOM Pty Ltd. He is Structural Engineer with 5.5 years of experience in the design, assessment and rehabilitation of Transportation Infrastructure. He has an experience of working on the site and in multidisciplinary teams of varying sizes predominantly based in Australia, UAE and Qatar. His skills include design of prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges and buried structures compliant to Australian, European, American and Indian codes of practice. He has briefly worked on engineering building structures while pursuing his master’s degree.
 
Rowan Hsu
Principal Structural Engineer
BG&E
Natalie Cook
Structural Engineer
Arcadis
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TEMPORARY PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE AT MARTIN PLACE METRO STATION
 
As part of the new Sydney Metro Southwest Project, in order to construct the Martin Place shaft in the middle of Sydney’s CBD, a temporary pedestrian bridge was required to connect the pedestrians at ground level between the bank and adjacent excavation. Transport for New South Wales required that the existing surface and underground walkway be accessible during the construction to minimise disruption to the pedestrian access to the adjacent underground train station and street-level foot traffic.
 
 
 
The installation of the temporary pedestrian bridge was required to be sequenced with the demolition of existing building and subsequent shaft excavation. Stringent shutdown control within the CBD meant that the erection of the super structure was scheduled over a single weekend. Access during erection was limited only to the ends of the bridge resulting in restricted cranage capacity and sequencing.
 
To achieve these requirements, the design adopted a double decker steel truss bridge connected in segments.The design development of this bridge required close coordination with the wider project team to meet the multitude of challenges presented.
 
The substructures were partially constructed within the existing basement prior to demolition. Interfacing details were extensively investigated and surveyed to ensure proper fitting during the erection. 
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Rowan Hsu is a Principal structural engineer for BG&E based in Sydney, Australia. He has over 15 years’ experience as a structural engineer across a broad range of sectors including infrastructure, industrial and buildings in Australia.
 
Natalie Cook is a structural engineer in Arcadis’ Civil infrastructure team. She was a part of the joint venture team delivering the design of the new Sydney Metro Southwest Project where she delivered three shaft excavation designs and design of the temporary pedestrian bridge at Martin Place Metro station.
 
 
 
 
Rupert Noronha - 1
Project Engineer
Brisbane City Council
CONSTRUCTION OF A ROAD BRIDGE OVER WATER – VINES CREEK, MACKAY, QUEENSLAND
 
Vines Creek Road Bridges is a Transport for Main Roads (TMR) demolition and replacement scheme in Mackay, Queensland. It comprises two, four-span prestressed concrete deck unit bridges spanning over Vines Creek. A gateway for agriculture and manufacturing in the region, the new bridges have a higher mass limit and were designed to increase flood immunity to the area. This presentation covers the full construction sequence of the road bridges with particular focus on cast-in-situ piling, driven precast piling, cast-in-situ abutments and precast deck erection including the transverse stressing operation.
 
 
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Rupert Noronha is a chartered structural engineer with 8 years’ experience, completing 5 years in design engineering before transitioning to construction and delivery roles. This technical paper is from his time with Queensland Bridge and Civil in 2018 where he worked as a site engineer in Mackay, Queensland. Currently, Rupert is working as a Project Engineer with Brisbane City Council on the Green Bridges Program, specifically the Kangaroo Point Green Bridge and West End Green Bridges.
 
Rupert Noronha - 2
Project Engineer
Brisbane City Council
INTEGRAL RAIL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION – STAMFORD RAIL UNDERBRIDGE - WERRINGTON, UNITED KINGDOM
 
Stamford Rail Underbridge is a single span concrete integral bridge with ballasted track form required as part of the Werrington Grade Separation Project in the United Kingdom. The bridge was constructed to facilitate plant and operative access to the wideway, located between the existing Stamford Lines and proposed Stamford slewed lines. The bridge consists of precast deck beams with reinforced concrete abutments and deck infill.
This presentation covers the full construction sequence of the rail underbridge and the resolution of several design and detailing issues.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Rupert Noronha is a chartered structural engineer with 8 years’ experience, completing 5 years in design before transitioning to construction roles. This technical paper is from his time with Morgan Sindall in 2019 while based in the United Kingdom. Currently, Rupert is working as a Project Engineer with Brisbane City Council on the Green Bridges Program, specifically the Kangaroo Point Green Bridge and West End Green Bridges.
 
Rupert Noronha - 3
Project Engineer
Brisbane City Council
PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION STAGING – COCK LANE FOOTBRIDGE, WERRINGTON, UNITED KINGDOM
 
Cock Lane Footbridge is a 50 meter single-span steel truss pedestrian bridge, constructed as part of the Werrington Grade Separation Project in the United Kingdom.
 
The new pedestrian bridge was constructed to span over the additional rail lines built as part of the project. This presentation covers the full construction sequence of the new pedestrian bridge, including, the demolition of the existing bridge, and the temporary construction works.
 
The construction of the new pedestrian bridge was carried out in a highly constrained environment, requiring detailed planning to avoid overhead rail lines, 132kV power lines, and a proposed new cast-in-situ concrete culvert.